As of Monday, October 7th, Nobel prizes in physics, chemistry and medicine will find their owners. Aside from who will receive the awards this year, the Nobel prizes have broken a record in their field, as there have been many oddities in the 112-year history of the Nobel prizes.
Here we take a look at some of them in their historical chronology.
First prize awarded five years after Alfred Nobel's death
The relatives of the Swedish chemist and inventor Alfred Nobel, who discovered the dynamite and who were the namesake of the awards bearing his name, had donated all his wealth to a foundation in his will, were shocked. They even objected to the will before the court after they got over their amazement. Thus, the first Alfred Nobel prize was awarded exactly five years after the inventor's death.
Nobel prizes awarded to deceased scientists
Nobel prizes are awarded only to living people. Despite this, Dag Hammarskjöld, who was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1961, and Erik Axel Karlfeldt, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1934, were not given their awards immediately. Because these people died in the period between the nomination period and the finalization of the award. That's why these people were given their awards after their death. The practice of giving posthumous awards was abolished in 1974.
Double Nobel laureates
Four scientists received double Nobel Prizes. US citizen John Bardeen was awarded twice in physics for the development of transistors in 1956 and for the theory of superconductivity in 1972. British biochemist Frederick Sanger was awarded a double award for his DNA research in 1958, for clarifying the structure of the hormone insulin in 1980.
The American chemist Linus Pauling was awarded different combinations of Nobel prizes. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1954, and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1962. Pauling was awarded the prize for his persistent opposition to nuclear testing.
Few Nobel prizes awarded to women
The most famous female scientist to have received a double Nobel Prize is Marie Curie. She was awarded in 1903 for her research on radiation, and in 1911 for her discovery of the chemistry elements Polonium and Radium.
Until 2012, a total of 44 Nobel Prizes were awarded to women. Among these, only 16 were awards in science. According to these results, Nobel prizes awarded to women in science correspond to only three percent of the total.
Those who refuse the award and the ban on receiving the award
There have also been those who have rejected the Nobel Peace Prize in the past. Famous Vietnamese politician Le Duc Tho did not receive the award, citing the situation in his country. The French thinker and writer Jean-Paul Sartre turned down the Nobel Peace Prize because he was against any official award. In scientific branches, there was no event such as the rejection of awards.
During the period of Hitler's Germany, German scientists were prohibited from receiving this award. Although a total of three German scientists were nominated twice in chemistry and once in medicine in 1938 and 39, they did not receive the award.
Nations with the most Nobel Prizes
The USA comes first among the nations that have received the most Nobel prizes in three scientific disciplines. 43 percent of the awards in physics, chemistry and medicine were given to scientists from the USA. Germany, England and France take the lead after the USA.
Vladimir Putin is among the candidates this year.
The nomination of Russian President Vladimir Putin for this year's Nobel Peace Prize by his own country for his "peaceful" role in the Syrian crisis is perceived as another strangeness in Nobel prizes.
Source :Deutsche Welle Turkish, mynet
Günceleme: 05/10/2013 21:09
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