Nâzım Hikmet Ran (15 January 1902 - 3 June 1963), Turkish poet and writer. It is defined as "romantic communist" and "romantic revolutionary". He was arrested many times because of his political thoughts and spent most of his adult life in prison or in exile. His poems have been translated into more than fifty languages and his works have received many awards.
During his banned years, he also used the names Orhan Selim, Ahmet Oğuz, Mümtaz Osman and Ercüment Er. İt Ürür Kervan Yürür has been published by Orhan Selim. The first practitioners of free verse in Turkey and one of the most important figures in contemporary Turkish poetry. It has earned an international reputation and is ranked among the most popular poets of the 20th century in the world.
Nazım Hikmet, whose poems were banned and tried in 11 separate cases due to his writings throughout his life, spent more than 12 years in Istanbul, Ankara, Çankırı and Bursa prisons. In 1951, the Republic of Turkey was excluded from citizenship; 46 years after his death, this process was canceled by the decision of the Council of Ministers dated 5 January 2009. His grave is located in Moscow.
Hikmet Bey, who was his father, the General Directorate of Printing and the City of Hamburg, was his mother Ayşe Celile Hanım. Mrs. Galile is a woman who plays the piano, paints and speaks French. Celile Hanım is the daughter of Hasan Enver Pasha, who is a language and educator. Hasan Enver Pasha is the son of Konstantin Borzecki (Polish: Konstanty Borzęcki, b. 1848 - d. 1826), who emigrated from Poland to the Ottoman Empire during the 1876 uprisings and became the Ottoman citizen. Mustafa Celaleddin Pasha served as an officer in the Ottoman Army and wrote the book “Les Turcs anciens et modernes” (Old and New Turks), an important work on Turkish history. Celile Hanım's mother is Leyla Hanım, daughter of German-born Ottoman general Mehmet Ali Pasha, Ludwig Karl Friedrich Detroit. The sister of Celile Hanım, Münevver Hanım, is the mother of the poet Oktay Rifat.
According to Nâzım Hikmet, his father was Turkish and his mother was of German, Polish, Georgian, Circassian and French descent. His father, Hikmet Bey, is the son of Circassian Nâzım Pasha. Her mother, Ayşe Celile Hanım, was 3/8 Circassian, 2/8 Polish, 1/8 Serbian, 1/8 German, 1/8 French (Huguenot).
His father, Hikmet Bey, is a civil servant in Thessaloniki, in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). He is the son of Nâzım Pasha, who served as governors of Diyarbakir, Aleppo, Konya and Sivas. Nâzım Pasha, one of the sect of Mevlevi, is also a libertarian. He is the last governor of Thessaloniki. In the childhood of Nâzım, Hikmet Bey left the civil service and the family went to Aleppo with Nâzım's grandfather. They try to start a new business and life there. When they fail, they come to Istanbul. Hikmet Bey's attempts to start a business in Istanbul also end in bankruptcy and return to his civil service life, which he did not like at all. As he speaks French, he is again appointed to Hariciye.
He was born on January 15, 1902 in Thessaloniki. He wrote his first poem Feryad-ı Vatan on 3 July 1913. He started secondary school in Mekteb-i Sultani the same year. After reading a heroic poem he wrote for sailors at a family meeting to the Navy Minister Cemal Pasha, the child was decided to go to the Navy School. He entered the Naval School of Heybeliada on September 25, 1915, and graduated 1918th out of 26 in 8. It is stated in the report card evaluations that he is a smart, moderately hardworking student who does not care about his clothes, is angry and has a good moral attitude. When he graduated, he was appointed to the ship of the time, Hamidiye, as the intern officer of the deck. On 17 May 1921, he was dismissed from the army, claiming that he had overdoed it.
National Struggle period and youth
Nazım's first published, Mehmed Nazım's signature, "Are They Still Crying in Services?" His poem entitled Yeni Mecmua on October 3, 1918.
At the age of 19, in January 1921, he moved to Anatolia, unaware of his family, to join the National Struggle with his friend Vâlâ Nureddin. When he was not sent to the front, he taught for a while in Bolu. Then, in September 1921, he went to Moscow via Batumi and studied political science and economics at the Communist University of Eastern Workers. He witnessed the first years of the revolution in Moscow and met communism. His first poetry book 1924 Kanunisani, published in 28, was staged in Moscow.
During his time in Moscow between 1921 and 1924, he was inspired by Russian futurists and constructivists and started to develop a new form by getting out of the classical form.
Returning to Turkey in 1924 in the Journal of Light began to work, but because of their poems and articles published in the journal fifteen years imprisonment when prompted again a year later went to the Soviet Union. He returned to Turkey in 1928, taking advantage of the Amnesty Law. But he was arrested again. After he was released, he started to work in the magazine “Fotoğrafi Ay”.
His poetry book, "1929 Row", published in Istanbul in 835, had a great impact in the literary circles.
Prison life and exile
He was acquitted in many lawsuits filed against him due to his poems and writings, starting in 1925. The list of cases he has been tried is as follows:
- 1925 Ankara Independence Court Case
- 1927-1928 Istanbul Assize Court Case
- 1928 Rize Assize Court Case
- 1928 Ankara Assize Court Case
- 1931 Istanbul Second Criminal Court of First Instance
- 1933 Istanbul Assize Court Case
- 1933 Istanbul Third Criminal Court of First Instance
- 1933-1934 Bursa Assize Court Case
- 1936-1937 Istanbul Assize Court Case
- 1938 Military Academy Command Military Court Case
- 1938 Naval Command Military Court Case
In 1933 and 1937, he was again detained for a while due to his organizational activities. In 1938, he was arrested, this time on charges of "inciting the army and navy to revolt" and was sentenced to 28 years and 4 months in prison. He stayed in Istanbul, Ankara, Çankırı and Bursa prisons for 12 consecutive years. The movie Blue Eyed Giant, which was released in 2007, describes the years Nazım was imprisoned in Bursa. He was released on 14 July, taking advantage of the General Amnesty Act of 1950 July 15. He took part in the establishment of the Peace Lovers Association.
Despite having no legal obligation, when he was called to the military, he left Istanbul on June 17, 1951, fearing that he would be killed, and went to Moscow via Romania. July 25, 1951 Date of Ministers grandfather Mustafa Jalal Following removal of the citizenship by the Council of the Republic of Turkey Pasha passing the citizenship of his native Poland, which took its name Borzęcki.
In the Soviet Union, he lived in the village of writers near Moscow, and then in Moscow with his wife Vera Tulyakova (Wisdom). During his years outside of the country, he traveled around the world, such as Bulgaria, Hungary, France, Cuba, Egypt, held conferences there, participated in war and anti-imperialist actions, and made radio programs. Budapest Radio and Bizim Radio are some of them. Some of these conversations have reached today.
He passed away from his apartment on the second floor to get his newspaper at 3:1963 am on June 06, 30, and died as a result of a heart attack while reaching for his full newspaper. Hundreds of local and foreign artists attended the ceremony held at the Soviet Writers Union Hall upon his death and the images of the ceremony were recorded in black and white. He is buried in the famous Novodevici Cemetery. One of his famous poems, The Man Walking Against the Wind, has been eternalized on the tombstone made of black granite.
Terms of works ranging from 1938 to 1968, he started wearing in prison it has been banned in Turkey. His works started to be published in various editions since 1965.
Taken back to the Republic of Turkey citizenship
In 2006, a new Council of Ministers to make regulations concerning the persons removed from the Council of the Republic of Turkey citizenship was on the agenda. Nâzım years are discussed Hikmet, although it appears to have opened the way to be readmitted to the Republic of Turkey citizenship Council of Ministers stating that he and Nazim Hikmet coverage for people who live just this arrangement has refused demands in this direction. Later, the Minister of Internal Affairs Abdülkadir Aksu said in the Internal Affairs Committee: “The draft has to apply in person because it has a personal right. My friends also stated positive things, they are discussed in the commission, a decision is made ”.
January 2009th Day of 5, "Nazim Hikmet Ran's proposal relating to the repeal of the Ministerial Council decision concerning the removal from the Republic of Turkey citizenship" was opened for signature at the Council of Ministers. Nazim Hikmet Ran again they were preparing a decree for the return of the Republic of Turkey citizenship and that this offer is opened for signature expresses Government Spokesman Cemil Cicek recommendations for having Rance again the Republic of Turkey citizens excluded from citizenship in 1951, the Council of Ministers, voted acceptance.
This decision of the Cabinet Order on January 5, 2009, published in the Official Gazette on January 10, 2009 and Nazim Hikmet Ran, 58 years later, he was again a citizen of the Republic of Turkey.
Style and achievements
He started writing his first poems with syllable, but was different from other syllables in terms of content. As his poetic development increased, he started not to settle for syllable and search for new forms for his poetry. This search peaked between 1922 and 1925, the first years in the Soviet Union. It was different from the poets of its time in terms of both content and form. Separating from the syllable measure, it adopted the free measure that harmonizes with the vocal features of Turkish. Mayakovsky and pro-futurism inspired by young Soviet poets.
Come to a gallop and from Far Asia
This country, which reaches the Mediterranean like a mare head, is ours.
The wrists are in the blood, the teeth are clamped, the feet are bare
And the earth that looks like a silk rug is hell, this heaven is ours. Close the hand doors, do not open again,
Destroy man's servanthood, this invitation is ours.
To live single and free like a tree and brotherly like a forest,
this longing is ours…
Many of his poems were composed by artists and groups such as Fikret Kızılok, Cem Karaca, Fuat Saka, Grup Yorum, Ezginin Günlog, Zülfü Livaneli, Ahmet Kaya. A small part, uniquely interpreted by Ünol Büyükgönenç, came out as a cassette in 1979 under the name "We Will See Good Days". Several of his poems were composed by Greek composer Manos Loizos. Some of his poems were also composed by Selim Atakan, a former member of Yeni Türkü. His poem “Salkım söğüt” was the subject of Ethem Onur Bilgiç's 2014 animated movie.
For the 2002 Nâzım Hikmet year, which was announced by UNESCO, composer Suat Özönder prepared an album called “Nâzım Hikmet in Songs”. With the contribution of the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture was launched by the New World label.
In the early days of 2008, the grandson of Nâzım Hikmet's wife Piraye, Kenan Bengü, found a poem named “Dort Güvercin” and three incomplete novel drafts among the documents of Piraye.
In the summer of 2020, Kitap-lık magazine published her poems titled "May 1 in Istanbul", "Declaration", "In the Window of the Night", "Confession" and "Our Life in Twenty-Two Words", which were discovered through her works at the TÜSTAV Comintern Archive.
- Ahmet Aslan, I'm Pregnant
- Ahmet Kaya, we were in the same branch
- Ahmet Kaya, Sheikh Bedrettin (Epic of Simavne Son, Sheikh Bedreddin adaptation from the poem)
- Cem Karaca, Walnut Tree
- Cem Karaca, I'm Very Tired (Blue Harbor adaptation from the poem)
- Cem Karaca, Longing (Davet adaptation from the poem)
- Cem Karaca, Like Everyone
- Cem Karaca, Welcome Woman (Welcome adaptation from the poem)
- Cem Karaca, Like Kerem
- Cem Karaca, Epic of Sheikh Bedrettin (Epic of Simavne Son, Sheikh Bedreddin adaptation from the poem)
- Edip Akbayram, Turkic of the Departures
- Edip Akbayram, We Will See Good Days (Nikbin adaptation from the poem)
- Edip Akbayram, They Are Afraid
- Esin Afşar, The Question of Tahir and Zühre
- The Diary of the Tune, the Goldfish
- The diary of the tune, it's a nice thing to think about you
- Fikret Kızılok, There is Akin
- Grup Baran, The Song of the Sun Drinkers
- Group Baran, Weeping Willow
- Group Comment, I Can't Escape A Soldier
- Group Comment, This Homeland Is Ours
- Group Comment, I'm in People
- Group Comment, Farewell
- Taci Uslu, Piraye [note 1]
- Hüsnü Arkan, Bor Hotel
- İlhan İrem, Welcome Woman
- İlkay Akkaya, Beyazıt Square
- Mesud Cemil, Wings of a Silver Baby Bird
- Onur Akın, Love It
- Onur Akın, I Love You
- Spiritual Water, Our Women
- Spiritual Water, The Tale of Tales
- Spiritual Water, They Are
- Sümeyra Çakır, Freedom Fight
- Yeni Türkü, Mapushane Gate
- Yeni Türkü, After He Died
- Yeni Türkü, You
- Zülfü Livaneli, If I Am Cloud
- Zülfü Livaneli, Goodbye Brother Deniz
- Zülfü Livaneli, Snowy Beech Forest
- Zülfü Livaneli, Girl Child
- Zulfu Livaneli, Memetcik Memet