Ludwig van Beethoven (baptism: 17 December 1770, death: 26 March 1827) is a German pianist and composer who made a great contribution to the transition from the Classical to the Romantic era and is considered one of the most famous and influential composers ever. Fidelio is one of his most well-known works, with 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, 32 piano sonata, 16 string quartets and the only opera he wrote in his life.
Beethoven's grandfather Ludwig Van Beethoven (1712-1773) was born in Mechelen, Belgium, moved to Bonn, Germany at the age of 20, and after finding a job as a bass singer in a palace, he was appointed as Kapellmeister of the palace in Bonn. is among the distinguished musicians of the Turkish Republic. Johann van Beethoven (1761-1740), Ludwig's only child, worked as a tenor in the same palace in Bonn like his father, and also gave keyboard and violin lessons. In 1792 he married Maria Magdalena Keverich (1767-1701), daughter of Johann Heinrich Keverich (1751-1746).
Beethoven is the second of seven children born after this marriage in Bonn. Of the seven children born of this marriage, only Beethoven and his two other siblings Kaspar Anton Karl van Beethoven (1774-1815) and Nikolaus Johann van Beethoven (1776-1848) survived. Although there is no exact information about Beethoven's actual birthday, the date of his baptism is recorded in church records as December 17, 1770. At that time, newborn babies are baptized the day after they are born, so Beethoven's birthday is celebrated on December 1736 by his parents and teacher Johann Albrechtsberger (1809-16).
Beethoven's first music teacher is his father. He then takes keyboard lessons from Gilles van den Eeden, organ and family friend Tobias Friedrich Pfeiffer. At the same time, he takes violin and viola lessons from Franz Rovantini. Beethoven starts taking very intense music lessons from the age of 5, his keyboard teacher Pfeiffer sometimes forced lessons by lifting him from his bed at night. Johann van Beethoven is aware of the tours and successes of Leopold Mozart, the father of Mozart, with his son. Beethoven gave his first public concert in 1778 when he was seven years old. In 1779, Beethoven began taking the first composition lessons from Christian Gottlob Neefe. With the help of Christian Gottlob Neefe in 1783, Beethoven publishes his first composition (WoO 63 keyboard variations), then works as Beethoven Neefe's assistant. In 1784, he started to earn his first money as an assistant. The first 3 piano sonatas (Kurfürst) were published in 1783. This enormous talent of Beethoven was noticed by Archbishop Maximilian Friedrich and supported financially and morally.
The enlightenment and freemasonry that broke out at that time affected Beethoven profoundly. Most of Neefe and Beethoven's circle were members of the Order of the Illuminati. In 1787, Beethoven went to Vienna hoping to work with Mozart, but 2 weeks after his arrival, he learned of his mother's illness and returned Beethoven lost his mother in the same year and his father became alcoholic. As a result, Beethoven had to take responsibility for his younger siblings and decided to stay in Bonn for 5 years. Around this time, he meets Franz Wegeler and thanks to him, he meets the von Breuning family, one of the distinguished families of that time. Beethoven frequently visits the von Breuning family home and gives music lessons to his children. Meanwhile, he met Count Ferdinand von Waldstein, one of the nobles of Germany, and received financial support from him. Later Beethoven will write a sonata in his name. After his father fell into the bog of alcoholism in 1789, Beethoven resorted to legal remedies to pay half of his father's salary, so he could support his family. At the same time, he continues to contribute financially to his family by playing viola in the orchestras of distinguished palaces, so he meets Mozart's operas and becomes friends with the famous flute virtuoso Anton Reicha.
Beethoven went to Vienna in 1792 and started to work with Joseph Haydn, the famous classical music composer. Joseph Haydn soon realized Beethoven's superior talent and supported him in all matters. Beethoven initially made a name for himself not as a composer but as a pianist. Later, with his compositions, classical music influenced all musicians who lived until the end of the 19th century.
Beethoven's nine symphonies, five piano concertos, one violin concerto, one piano, triple concerto for violin and cello, thirty-two piano sonata and many chamber pieces. He composed only one opera, Fidelio. He made his first symphony in 1800. He dedicated his 3rd symphony, also known as Eroica, to Napoleon for bringing democracy to Europe. However, when Napoleon declared himself Emperor later, he reclaimed this commitment. The 9th symphony is the best known and the most striking symphony, which is also the European Union anthem today.
Beethoven was a very meticulous musician. His music, expressiveness and technique were very high. He developed the principles he inherited from Beethoven, Haydn and Mozart, wrote longer compositions and produced more passionate, dramatic works. Especially Op. He started the Romantic Era of Classical Music with 109 piano sonatas.
Beethoven, who suffered from health problems throughout his life, began to have hearing problems in 1801 and became completely deaf in 1817. After this period, his deafness did not affect his music life in any way. He composed the 9th symphony while he was deaf.
He died in 1827 at the age of 56 as a world-renowned composer due to cirrhosis, and nearly thirty thousand people attended his funeral.