Bernoulli means so much to physicists, mathematicians, engineers, scientists, almost any science group.

When we say Bernoulli Family, it may sound like the Mafia family we heard from a television program, but they were a family of Europe's most famous mathematician and abundant. Their fame was in Ballet, Switzerland in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. The uniqueness of this particular family is a stubborn streak that brings destruction to family life.

The Bernoulli family were originally Dutch with a strong religion of Calvinism. They were supposed to avoid Spanish religious persecution. So they fled to Switzerland. Nicholas Bernoulli brought the family to Switzerland. This family was not math oriented, they did spice work at Bale. He had three sons, and two of them became the most influential mathematicians in the academic community, but they became hostile to each other. Let's get to know them now.

## Bernoulli Brothers Jacob and John

### Jacob Bernoulli

The eldest son Jacob was born in 1654 and died in 1705 in Bale, Switzerland. His parents forced him to study philosophy and theology. Like a Bernoulli, he resented the studies but mastered philosophy. He was so keen on mathematics and astronomy that he incorporated them into his studies against the wishes of his parents. He pursued a career in mathematics rather than philosophy. Bernoulli was the first to be recognized as a powerfully influential mathematician.

He's been working on probability. If something happens repeatedly and in large quantities, it is likely to happen most of the time. He could also be called a brilliant mathematician. But he had an average streak.

### Who is John Bernoulli?

His younger brother, John, was born in 1667 and died in Bale Switzerland in 1748. He was not very successful in the spice business. At the age of 16 he entered Ballet University and studied medicine. He asked his brother Jacob to teach him math. By this time, Jacob was a mathematics professor for him. After two years under Jacob's tutelage, John was his equal.

At first, Jacob had no problem lecturing his younger brother. He noticed his brother's abilities and quick math work. As time passed, John Bernoulli's blood began to boil.

John's ego was growing. He prided himself on his work and at the same time despised his brother. Jacob was so angry that he underestimated John's abilities. Jacob refers to him as a student repeating what his teacher taught, namely a parrot. Jacob and John were constantly discussing their family togetherness in the academic community.

Despite his family problems, John was an excellent mathematician. He developed computational methods and discovered fundamental principles to solve problems that Newton could not solve in the laws of gravity.

John also y=x^{X }He did many important studies on the examination of the equation.

In 1695, Jacob was head of mathematics at Bale. John wanted that lectern. But he was offered another chair in Holland. He swore he wouldn't go back to Bale. Around 1705 Johann's father-in-law was dying and he wanted his daughter and grandchildren, so Johann returned to Bale. She did not know that her brother Jacob had died of tuberculosis during the trip. When Johann learned of his brother's death, he remained in his chair.

## Most Famous Daniel Bernoulli

Daniel Bernoulli was the middle of Johann Bernoulli's three sons. He was born in 1700 in Groningen, Netherlands. Johann Bernoulli did not want his son to enter the field of mathematics, as his father did to him. He was a man of passions.

Johann Bernoulli tried to convince Daniel that there was no money in math, and he hired Daniel to work with a merchant. But Daniel resisted.

Daniel began studying logic and philosophy at university. He graduated from Basel at the age of thirteen and received his bachelor's degree two years later. The following year, he received his master's degree.

His father eventually allowed Daniel to study medicine, and for the next few years, Daniel studied in Heidelberg, Germany and Strasbourg, France.

In the early 1720s Bernoulli went to Venice to study medicine. He also hoped to further his education in college.

He went to the University of Padua, but became too ill to follow this plan.

Instead, he worked on mathematics. Its first publication would be "Mathematical Exercises" in 1724.

Within a year, Bernoulli also designed an hourglass for use at sea. No matter how violently the ship was moving, even in a storm the sand drop had to be constant. At the age of twenty-five, he submitted this work to the annual competition of the Paris Academy and won the grand prize.

As a result of this award and the fame resulting from the "Mathematical Exercises", he was offered to accept the chair of mathematics at the Imperial Academy in Saint Petersburg, which he accepted.

To his brother, Nicolaus, he was also named St. Petersburg, he was offered the chair of mathematics. Nicolaus, your brothers St. He died tragically a few months after his arrival in St.

Johann Bernoulli would arrange for Leonhard Euler, his best student and also Daniel Bernoulli's childhood friend, to come and help him.

The following years will be the most productive of Daniel Bernoulli's life. In his study of vibratory systems, he described simple knots and the oscillating frequencies of a system and the movement of the strings of musical instruments in an infinite number of harmonic vibrations along the entire string.

Daniel has won 10 awards from the Paris Academy of Sciences on astronomy, gravity, tides, magnetism, ocean currents and the behavior of ships at sea. He also did important work on probability.

The relationship between Johann (father) and Daniel (son) would become strained. In 1734, the prize was awarded to both when they both competed for the Prize of the Great Paris Academy.

The fact that his son also received an award drove Johann crazy. Banned Daniel. The father-son relationship was further damaged in 1739 when Johann Bernoulli published an article on hydrodynamics entitled “Hydrolica”.

Yet Daniel had published a very similar work, "Hydrodynamica," a year earlier. Johann even played with dates that went too far.

However, plagiarism soon emerged. Daniel Bernoulli continued his studies of calculus, mechanics, conservation of energy, oscillation, and motion of objects in a resistive environment in the following years.

Also Daniel Bernoulli The Royal Society of London, the Paris Academy of Sciences, the Berlin Academy and St. He was also a member of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.

Source: digitalcommons.chapman.edu

Compiled by: Hasan ONGAN

Günceleme: 08/10/2021 10:55

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