Today in the History of Science: George Westinghouse Patents Air Brakes

Who is George Westinghouse
Who is George Westinghouse

April 13 is the 103nd (104rd in leap years) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 262.

Today in the History of Science

  • In a letter to Federico Cesi on April 13, 1625, by Johannes Faber of Bamberg, Germany, the word microscope was used as a suggested term.
  • On April 13, 1869, the first US patent for an air brake was granted to George Westinghouse.
  • April 13, 1992 Turkish physicist and mathematician Feza Gürsey died
  • April 13, 2008 American theoretical physicist John Archibald Wheeler dies

Events

  • 1111 – Henry V is crowned Holy Roman Emperor.
  • 1204 – The sack of Constantinople in the Fourth Crusade.
  • 1517 – The last Mamluk sultan II. Tomanbay was executed by Selim I in Cairo.
  • 1796 - An elephant is brought to the USA for the first time from India.
  • 1839 - El Salvador declared its independence.
  • 1849 - Hungary passed into the republican regime.
  • 1870 - The Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in New York.
  • 1909 – The 31 March Incident occurred in the Ottoman Empire.
  • 1919 – Amritsar massacre: British troops kill 379 unarmed demonstrators in Amritsar (India).
  • 1921 - The Communist Workers' Party of Spain is founded.
  • 1933 – After graduating from the Higher Engineering School (Istanbul Technical University), Sabiha and Melek Hanımlar became Turkey's first female engineers. Two female engineers were appointed to the Ankara and Bursa Public Works Administration (Ministry of Public Works) after a lottery.
  • 1941 - The USSR signs a non-aggression pact with Japan.
  • 1945 - Nazi Germany military units kill more than 1000 political and military prisoners.
  • 1945 – The forces of the USSR and the Kingdom of Bulgaria capture Vienna.
  • 1949 – Turkish Women's Union was founded under the Honorary Presidency of President İsmet İnönü's wife Mevhibe İnönü.
  • 1970 – 12 armed right-wing, second lieutenant doctor Necdet Güçlü, who raided Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, killed.
  • 1970 – Space shuttle Apollo 13One of the oxygen tanks exploded just as the navy was 321.860 km above the ground. The space crew successfully returned to Earth.
  • 1975 – The Lebanese Civil War begins with the killing of 27 Palestinians in response to four Christian Falangists in the Lebanese capital, Beirut.
  • 1982 – Hilmi İşgüzar, a former minister in Turkey, was sentenced to 9 years and 8 months in prison by the Supreme Court.
  • 1985 – Ramiz Alia came to the management in Albania after Enver Hoxha.
  • 1987 – Prof. Dr. Ekrem Akurgal, Aziz Nesin, Prof. Dr. Rona Aybay, Panayot Abacı and Oğuz Aral founded the Turkey-Greece Friendship Association.
  • 1987 – Portugal and China signed an agreement on the return of Macau to Chinese HC in 1999.
  • 1994 – The repealed Law No. 3984 on the Establishment and Broadcasting of Radio and Television, known as the “RTÜK Law” in the public, was accepted in the Parliament.
  • 1994 – Welfare Party Chairman Necmettin Erbakan's use of the phrase "60 million will decide whether the RP will be hard or soft, bloody or sweet to come to power," in the group meeting of his party, sparked reactions.
  • 1998 – PKK's number two person Şemdin Sakık and his brother Arif Sakık were captured and brought to Turkey in an operation by the General Staff Special Forces Command.

Births

  • 1506 – ​​Pierre Favre, Catholic clergyman of Savoie descent – ​​co-founder of the Jesuit order, (d. 1546)
  • 1519 – Catherine de' Medici, Queen of France (d. 1589)
  • 1570 Guy Fawkes, English rebel soldier (d. 1606)
  • 1743 – Thomas Jefferson, American politician, author, and 3rd President of the United States (d. 1826)
  • 1764 – Laurent de Gouvion Saint-Cyr, Marshal and Marquess of France (d. 1830)
  • 1771 – Richard Trevithick, English inventor and mining engineer (d. 1833)
  • 1808 – Antonio Meucci, Italian inventor (d. 1889)
  • 1825 – Thomas D'Arcy McGee, Canadian author (d. 1868)
  • 1851 – William Quan Judge, American theosophist (d. 1896)
  • 1860 – James Ensor, Belgian painter (d. 1949)
  • 1866 – Butch Cassidy, American outlaw (d. 1908)
  • 1885 – Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy, Dutch statesman (d. 1961)
  • 1901 – Jacques Lacan, French psychiatrist (d. 1981)
  • 1904 – Yves Congar, considered one of the most important Roman Catholic theologians of the 20th century (d. 1995)
  • 1906 – Samuel Beckett, Irish writer, critic, and poet (d. 1989)
  • 1914 – Orhan Veli, Turkish poet (d. 1950)
  • 1919 – Howard Keel, American actor (d. 2004)
  • 1920 – Roberto Calvi, Italian banker (d. 1982)
  • 1923 – Don Adams, American actor and comedian (d. 2005)
  • 1930 – Sergiu Nicolaescu, Romanian director and politician (d. 2013)
  • 1931 – Aram Gülyüz, Turkish director, producer and screenwriter (d. 2018)
  • 1939 – Ekrem Pakdemirli, Turkish politician (d. 2015)
  • 1939 – Şemsi İnkaya, Turkish actress
  • 1942 – Ataol Behramoğlu, Turkish poet and writer
  • 1942 – Aykut Edibali, Turkish politician, writer and Chairman of the Nation Party
  • 1944 – Bill Gross, American financial executive and author
  • 1950 – Ron Perlman, Jewish-American voice actor and actor
  • 1953 - Brigitte Macron, wife of French President Emmanuel Macron
  • 1955 – Safet Sušic, Bosnian football player
  • 1963 – Garry Kasparov, Russian chess grandmaster and World Chess Champion
  • 1967 – Olga Tanón, Puerto Rican singer
  • 1968 – Jeanne Balibar, French actress and singer
  • 1972 – Qurban Qurbanov, Azerbaijani football player
  • 1975 - Tatiana Navka, Russian figure skater and 2006 Winter Olympics champion
  • 1976 – Jonathan Brandis, American actor (d. 2003)
  • 1980 – Jana Cova, Czech porn star
  • 1985 – Kerim Zengin, Turkish football player
  • 1995 – Yosuke Akiyama, Japanese football player

Deaths

  • 814 – Khan Krum, Khan of the Danube Bulgarian State
  • 1605 – Boris Godunov, Tsar of Russia (b. 1551)
  • 1695 – Jean de La Fontaine, French writer (b. 1621)
  • 1712 – Nâbi, poet of Ottoman Divan literature (b. 1642)
  • 1794 – Imam Mansur, Chechen statesman (b. 1760)
  • 1854 – José María Vargas, president of Venezuela (b. 1786)
  • 1904 – Stepan Makarov, Russian vice-admiral and oceanographer (b. 1849)
  • 1904 – Vasily Vasilyevich Vereschagin, Russian martial artist (b. 1842)
  • 1918 – Lavr Georgievich Kornilov, Russian Military Intelligence officer (b. 1870)
  • 1936 – Konstandinos Demercis, Greek politician (b. 1936)
  • 1941 – Annie Jump Cannon, American astronomer (b. 1863)
  • 1943 – Oskar Schlemmer, German painter, sculptor, designer and Bauhaus school choreographer (b. 1888)
  • 1945 – Ernst Cassirer, German philosopher (b. 1874)
  • 1956 – Emil Nolde, German painter and printmaker (b. 1867)
  • 1962 – Hermann Muhs, Minister of State and secretary for churches in Nazi Germany (b. 1894)
  • 1966 – Abdusselam Arif, Iraqi soldier and politician. He served as president of Iraq from 1963 to 1966. (b. 1921)
  • 1966 – Carlo Carrà, Italian painter (b. 1881)
  • 1975 – François Tombalbaye, aka Ngarta Tombalbaye, teacher and trade union activist who served as Chad's first president (b. 1918)
  • 1978 – Funmilayo Ransome-Kuti, Nigerian women's rights activist and feminist (b. 1900)
  • 1983 – Gerald Archibald “Gerry” Hitchens, English former international football player (b. 1934)
  • 1983 – Mercè Rodoreda i Gurguí, Catalan novelist (b. 1908)
  • 1992 – Feza Gürsey, Turkish physicist and mathematician (b. 1921)
  • 2000 – Giorgio Bassani, Italian writer and publisher (b. 1916)
  • 2008 – Ignazio Fabra, Italian wrestler (b. 1930)
  • 2008 – John Archibald Wheeler, American theoretical physicist (b. 1911)
  • 2014 – Ernesto Laclau, Argentine political theorist often recognized as a post-Marxist (b. 1935)
  • 2015 – Ronnie Carroll, Northern Irish singer (b. 1934)
  • 2015 – Eduardo Galeano, Uruguayan journalist (b. 1940)
  • 2015 – Günter Grass, German writer and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1927)
  • 2017 – Georges Rol, French bishop of the Roman Catholic Church (b. 1926)
  • 2017 – Robert William Taylor or Bob taylor, American computer scientist and computer engineer (b. 1932)
  • 2018 – Arthur William Bell III, American radio host, journalist, and author (b. 1945)
  • 2018 – Miloš Forman, Czechoslovak immigrant American film director, screenwriter, actor, and academic (b. 1932)
  • 2019 – Anthony Peter Buzan, English author, clinical psychologist, and publisher (b. 1942)
  • 2019 – Neus Català Pallejà, Spanish critic, activist and politician (b. 1915)
  • 2019 – Paul Greengard, American neurologist (b. 1925)
  • 2020 – Ryo Kawasaki, Japanese electronic jazz musician, conductor, composer, and software programmer (b. 1947)
  • 2020 – Sarah Maldoror, Black-French writer, film and theater director (b. 1929)
  • 2020 – Patricia Millardet, French actress (b. 1957)
  • 2020 – Ann Sullivan, American animator (b. 1929)
  • 2021 – Patricio Hacbang Alo, Filipino Roman Catholic bishop (b. 1939)
  • 2021 – Jaime Mota de Farias, Brazilian Catholic bishop (b. 1925)
  • 2021 – Jamal al-Kebindi, Kuwaiti national football player (b. 1959)
  • 2021 – Ruth Roberta de Souza, Brazilian women's basketball player (b. 1968)

Holidays and special occasions

  • Thailand, Laos and Cambodia – Songkran (Christmas)

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