Today in the History of Science: First Padlock Patent Granted

harry soref padlock
harry soref padlock

April 22 is the 112nd (113rd in leap years) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 253.

Today in the History of Science

  • On April 22, 1056, the supernova in the Cancer nebula was last seen with the naked eye.
  • April 22, 1904 American physicist Robert Oppenheimer was born.
  • April 22, 1924 Harry E. Soref was granted a patent for the padlock.
  • April 22, 1989 Emilio Gino Segrè, Italian physicist and Nobel Prize laureate, died.

Events

  • 1370 – The construction of the Bastille Castle began on the orders of King Charles V of France.
  • 1912 – organ of the Communist Party of the USSR Pravda The first issue of the newspaper was published.
  • 1920 – The Allies invited the Ottoman Government to the Peace Conference to be held in Paris.
  • 1924 – The General Directorate of State Railways of the Republic of Turkey was established. The law on the nationalization of Anatolian railways was adopted.
  • 1933 – With the agreement signed between Turkey and the General Holders of the Ottoman World, the debts of the Ottoman Empire were liquidated.
  • 1940 – Oil was found at a depth of 1042 meters on Mount Raman, near Beşiri, south of Siirt.
  • 1947 – The law allowing foreign capital to enter Turkey was accepted.
  • 1952 – Beşiktaş beat Brazil's Corinthians football team 1-0 in Istanbul.
  • 1962 – It was decided to establish the Constitutional Court and the Supreme Council of Judges.
  • 1962 – The Ministry of National Defense announced that five officers, including Lieutenant Colonel Talat Turhan, were detained on the grounds that they distributed leaflets signed "Young Communists Army".
  • 1970 - Earth Day is celebrated for the first time.
  • 1970 – Türkiye Newspaper was founded.
  • 1972 – The defendants of the THKO trial, Nahit Töre and Osman Bahadır, were sentenced to life imprisonment.
  • 1973 – Hakkari Provincial Radio started broadcasting. Thus, it was announced that there is no region left that cannot listen to Turkish Radios at the national level.
  • 1974 – The strikes, which lasted for 90 days in EAS and 79 days in Mutlu, one of Turkey's two largest accumulator factories, came to an end with the help of Minister of State İsmail Hakkı Birler.
  • 1975 - Barbara Walters becomes the highest paid television news presenter, signing a five-year, $5 million deal with the American Broadcasting Company.
  • 1976 - The wife of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was imprisoned for an illegal account in an American bank. Rabin then resigned from his post. Shimon Peres took over.
  • 1980 – The Process Leading to the 12 September 1980 Coup in Turkey (1979 - 12 September 1980): 20 people were killed across the country.
  • 1983 – West German magazine Der SternHitler's DiariesHe claimed to have brought to light and published some parts of it. It was later revealed that these diaries were fake.
  • 1985 – Sabah Newspaper was founded.
  • 1987 – Language Association was established.
  • 1992 – In Mexico's second largest city, Guadalajara, 206 people were killed, 500 injured, and 15.000 homeless when gasoline mixed into the sewer system exploded.
  • 1993 – TGRT TV started its broadcasting life.
  • 1994 – Rwandan Genocide: It has been reported that 100 thousand people died in the last two weeks in clashes between Hutu and Tutsi tribes in Rwanda.
  • 1995 – Rauf Denktaş was elected President of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC) for the third time.
  • 1997 – Operation against Tupac Amaru guerrillas, who has been holding 72 people hostage at the Japanese embassy in Lima, Peru, for four months, 14 guerrillas, including leader Néstor Cerpa Cartolini, and one hostage killed.
  • 1999 – Chairman of the Republican People's Party Deniz Baykal resigned from his post due to the results of the 18 April elections. He became the first leader in Turkey to resign after the election defeat.

Births

  • 571 – Muhammad, Arab social, religious, and political leader and founder of Islam (last Prophet)
  • 1451 – Isabel I, Queen of Castile and León (d. 1504)
  • 1658 – Giuseppe Torelli, Italian composer (d. 1709)
  • 1724 – Immanuel Kant, German philosopher (d. 1804)
  • 1757 – Josef Grassi, Austrian painter (d. 1838)
  • 1766 – Anne Louise Germaine de Staël, Swiss author (d. 1817)
  • 1799 – Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille, French physician (d. 1869)
  • 1854 – Henri La Fontaine, Belgian lawyer (d. 1943)
  • 1870 – Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, founder of the Soviet Union (d. 1924)
  • 1891 – Nicola Sacco, Italian immigrant American anarchist (d. 1927)
  • 1899 – Vladimir Nabokov, Russian writer (d. 1977)
  • 1903 – Daphne Akhurst, Australian tennis player (d. 1933)
  • 1904 – Robert Oppenheimer, American physicist (d. 1967)
  • 1906 Eddie Albert, American actor (d. 2005)
  • 1909 – Spiros Markezinis, Greek politician (d. 2000)
  • 1914 – Michael Wittmann, German soldier (nicknamed Black Baron, tank commander in World War II) (d. 1944)
  • 1916 – Yehudi Menuhin, American violinist (d. 1999)
  • 1923 – Aaron Spelling, American producer of film and TV series (d. 2006)
  • 1923 – Bettie Page, American model (d. 2008)
  • 1930 – Şarık Tara, Turkish civil engineer and Honorary President of Enka Holding (d. 2018)
  • 1937 – Jack Nicholson, American actor and winner of the Academy Award for Best Actor, Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
  • 1943 – Duygu Aykal, Turkish ballerina and choreographer (d. 1988)
  • 1943 – Louise Glück, American poet and author
  • 1946 – Nicole Garcia, French director and writer
  • 1946 – Yusuf Sezgin, Turkish cinema, TV series actor and director
  • 1946 – John Waters, American director, actor, stand-up comedian, writer, and journalist
  • 1951 – Paul Carrack, English singer, songwriter and composer
  • 1952 – Marilyn Chambers, American pornographic film star, dancer, and model (d. 2009)
  • 1957 – Donald Tusk, Polish politician
  • 1959 – Musa Uzunlar, Turkish actor
  • 1960 – Tatiana Thumbtzen, American actress, model, and dancer
  • 1962 – Anne Aasheim, Norwegian writer (d. 2016)
  • 1965 – Fikret Kuskan, Turkish actor
  • 1966 - Jeffrey Dean Morgan, American actor
  • 1972 – Anna Falchi, Finnish-Italian actress and model
  • 1974 – Shavo Odadjian, Armenian-American bass guitarist
  • 1976 – Zeynep Mansur, Turkish singer and writer
  • 1977 – Mark van Bommel, Dutch former football player
  • 1980 – Nicolas Douchez, French goalkeeper
  • 1981 – Sezin Akbaşoğulları, Turkish actress
  • 1982 – Kaká, Brazilian football player
  • 1984 – Amelle Berrabah, English singer-songwriter
  • 1984 – Michelle Ryan, English actress
  • 1986 – Amber Heard, American actress
  • 1987 – David Luiz, Brazilian football player
  • 1987 – John Obi Mikel, Nigerian football player
  • 1990 – Richard Colson Baker, American rapper
  • 1990 – Shelvin Mack, American basketball player
  • 1993 – Ryu Hwa-young, South Korean singer and former T-ara member
  • 1994 – Sinan View, German-born Turkish football player
  • Özge Özacar, Turkish TV actress
  • Mustafa Etoglu, Turkish football player

Deaths

  • 296 – Caius, bishop of Rome from December 17, 283 until his death in 296
  • 455 – Petronius Maximus, Roman Emperor (b. 396)
  • 835 – Kūkai, Japanese Buddhist monk, poet, engineer, and artist (d. Heian period Japan) (b. 774)
  • 1559 – IV. John Megas Komninos, Emperor of the Trebizond Empire (b. 1403)
  • 1699 – Hans Assmann Freiherr von Abschatz, German lyric poet and translator (b. 1646)
  • 1782 – Anne Bonny, Irish female pirate (b. 1702)
  • 1821 – Gregorios V, Patriarch of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and religious leader (b. 1746)
  • 1833 – Richard Trevithick, English inventor and mining engineer (b. 1771)
  • 1852 – Avram Petronijević, Serbian politician (b. 1791)
  • 1854 – Nicolás Bravo Rueda, Mexican soldier and politician (b. 1786)
  • 1884 – Marie Taglioni, Italian ballerina (b. 1804)
  • 1889 – Ivan Lariоnоv, Russian composer and folklorist (b. 1830)
  • 1892 – Edouard Lalo, French composer (b. 1823)
  • 1908 – Henry Campbell-Bannerman, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1836)
  • 1908 – Kasım Emin, Egyptian judge (b. 1863)
  • 1930 – Jeppe Aakjær, Danish poet and writer (b. 1866)
  • 1930 – John Peter Russell, Australian painter (b. 1858)
  • 1933 – Henry Royce, English engineer and automobile designer (b. 1863)
  • 1937 – Arthur Edmund Carewe, Armenian American stage and film actor (b. 1884)
  • 1945 – Käthe Kollwitz, German painter (b. 1867)
  • 1953 – Jan Czochralski, German-born Polish chemist (b. 1885)
  • 1954 – Adolf Josef Lanz, Austrian publisher and journalist (b. 1874)
  • 1956 – Jan Šrámek, Czechoslovak politician and first President of the Czechoslovak People's Party (b. 1870)
  • 1969 – Christina Montt, Chilean actress (b. 1895)
  • 1969 – Markian Popov, Soviet soldier (b. 1902)
  • 1977 – Atif Kaptan, Turkish film actor (b. 1908)
  • 1984 – Ansel Adams, American photographer (b. 1902)
  • 1989 – Emilio Gino Segrè, Italian physicist and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (b. 1905)
  • 1990 – Albert Salmi, American actor (b. 1928)
  • 1991 – Feriha Tevfik, Turkey's first beauty queen (b. 1910)
  • 1994 – Berin Menderes, wife of Adnan Menderes, a former Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1905)
  • 1994 – Richard Nixon, 37th President of the United States (b. 1913)
  • 2002 – Linda Lovelace, American pornographic actress (b. 1949)
  • 2006 – Alida Valli, Italian actress (b. 1921)
  • 2008 – Edward Lorenz, American mathematician and meteorologist (b. 1917)
  • 2011 – Mehmet Gedik, Turkish civil engineer and politician (b. 1953)
  • 2013 – Burhan Apaydın, Turkish lawyer (b. 1924)
  • 2013 – Vivi Bach, Danish actress (b. 1939)
  • 2013 – Richie Havens, American folk singer and guitarist (b. 1941)
  • 2014 – Abdul Kadir, Afghan politician (b. 1944)
  • 2015 – Tolgay Ziyal, Turkish filmmaker and director (b. 1939)
  • 2017 – Miguel Abensour, French philosopher (b. 1939)
  • 2017 – Sophie Lefranc-Duvillard, French female skier (b. 1971)
  • 2017 – Erin Moran, American actress (b. 1960)
  • 2017 – Attilio Nicora, Italian cardinal (b. 1937)
  • 2017 – Witold Pyrkosz, Polish actor (b. 1926)
  • 2017 – Gustavo Rojo, Uruguayan actor and filmmaker (b. 1923)
  • 2017 – Michele Scarponi, Italian racing cyclist (b. 1979)
  • 2018 – Demeter Bitenc, Slovenian actor (b. 1922)
  • 2018 – Nino Hurtsidze, Georgian female chess player (b. 1975)
  • 2019 – Heather Harper, Northern Irish opera singer (b. 1930)
  • 2019 – Billy McNeill, Scottish football player and manager (b. 1940)
  • 2020 – Samantha Fox, American pornographic film actress (b. 1950)
  • 2020 – Shirley Knight, American stage, film and television actress (b. 1936)
  • 2020 – Sadat Hussein, Bangladeshi bureaucrat and politician (b. 1946)
  • 2020 – Annie Hausen, French poet, screenwriter, educator and author (b. 1926)
  • 2020 – Shirley Knight, American stage, film and television actress (b. 1936)
  • 2020 – El Príncipe Gitano, Spanish flamenco singer, actor and dancer (b. 1928)
  • 2020 – Julian Perry Robinson, English chemist and peace researcher (b. 1941)
  • 2021 – Selahattin Duman, Turkish writer, journalist, film critic and actor (b. 1950)
  • 2021 – Selma Gürbüz, Turkish painter and sculptor (b. 1960)

Holidays and special occasions

  • Earth Day
  • Withdrawal of Russian and Armenian troops from Hakkari (1918)

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