The Annus Mirabilis papers (Latin: annus mīrābilis; miracle year) are articles published by Albert Einstein in the scientific journal Annalen der Physik in 1905. These four articles contributed greatly to the foundation of modern physics and changed views on space, time, mass, and energy. Annus Mirabilis is called Miracle Year in English or Wunderjahr in German and means miracle year.
Einsteinhaus in Kramgasse, Bern, which was Einstein's home at the time. Most of his articles were written in his first-floor apartment.
Despite regularly reading and contributing to the reviews for Annalen der Physik, Einstein did not have easy access to a complete set of scientific reference material at the time of writing the articles. He also had very few scientific colleagues with whom he could discuss his theories. Einstein worked at the Patent Office in Bern, Switzerland, and later told one of his colleagues there, Michele Besso, that "in all of Europe he could not find a better reflector for his ideas." Apart from that, his colleagues and other members of the self-styled "Olympic Academy" (Maurice Solovine and Paul Habicht), and his wife, Mileva Marić, had some influence on Einstein's work, although it is unclear how much.
Through these articles, Eienstein was able to tackle the most important physics questions and problems of the age. In 1900, Lord Kelvin's lecture entitled "Nineteenth Century Clouds on the Dynamical theory of Heat and Light" argued that physics did not provide satisfactory explanations for the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and black body radiation. As has been suggested, special relativity added value to the results of the Michelson-Morley experiments. Einstein's theories of the photoelectric effect extended the quantum theory developed by Max Planck in his successful explanation of black-body radiation.
Despite his great reputation for other work, such as special relativity, his work on the photoelectric effect earned him the Nobel Prize in 1921: "For his services to theoretical physics and especially to the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect." The Nobel Committee patiently awaited experimental confirmation for special relativity, but nothing was revealed until the time dilation experiments of Ives and Stilwell (1938), (1941) and Rossi and Hall (1941).
The article entitled “An Intuitive View on the Formation and Transformation of Light,” which arrived on March 18 and was published on June 9, introduced the idea of quantum energy. Inspired by the derivation of Max Planck's earlier law of blackbody radiation, this idea predicts that light energy can be absorbed or emitted in different amounts, called quantum. Einstein used the following expression:
“During the propagation of a light beam, the energy is not constantly dispersed in steadily increasing spaces, but consists of a finite number of energy packets located at points in space, which move undivided and can be absorbed or formed as units.”
His article, "On the Motions of Suspended Particles in a Stationary Liquid in the Framework of Molecular Kinetic Theory", which arrived 11 May and was published 18 July, described a probabilistic model of Brownian motion:
In this article, it will be shown that, according to the molecular kinetic theory of heat, visible microscopically visible suspended bodies in liquids, as a result of thermal molecular movements, make movements that can be easily seen with a microscope. It is possible that the motions to be discussed here are analogous to the so-called Brownian molecular motion; however, the available data on the latter is so vague that I have not been able to form a judgment on this question. “Special relativity
Einstein's third paper this year, "Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies," arrived on 30 June and was published on 26 September. This article reconciles Maxwell's electrical and magnetic equations with the laws of mechanics, bringing significant changes to mechanics near the speed of light. This later became known as Einstein's special theory of relativity.
Only five other scientists are mentioned in the article, Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Heinrich Hertz, Christian Doppler, and Hendrik Lorentz. It does not reference other publications. Many of the ideas have already been published by others, as detailed in the history of special relativity and relativity priority dispute. However, Einstein's paper introduced the theory of time, distance, mass, and energy compatible with electromagnetism, but neglected the gravitational force.
On November 21st, Annalen der Physik, “Does the Inertia of an Object Depend on its Energy Content?” He published the fourth article titled (retrieved 27 September).
In this article, Einstein developed a proof for what is probably the most famous equation in physics: E = mc².
Einstein thought the equation of equality to be very important because it showed that a very large particle has an energy, "quiescent energy", separate from its classical kinetic and potential energies. The article is based on the reviews of James Clerk Maxwell and Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, as well as on the axioms of relativity, as Einstein put it.
“The results of previous investigations have led to very interesting conclusions that need to be deduced here. The previous review was based on “Maxwell's electromagnetic vacuum energy expression together with Maxwell-Hertz's vacuum equations…”.
The laws that change the states of physical systems are independent of the alternative in two coordinate systems in the uniform motion of relative parallel translation, and this is called state changes (principle of relativity).
Günceleme: 07/05/2022 12:34
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