A Strange New State of Matter and Two-Dimensional Atoms

A Strange New State of Matter and Two-Dimensional Atoms
A Strange New State of Matter and Two-Dimensional Atoms - An artist's impression of a supersolid being both solid and liquid at the same time. (Image credit: IQOQI Innsbruck/Harald Ritsch)

In recent research, scientists have succeeded in making atoms display two types of time simultaneously. Although the alleged phenomenon does not distract us from the knowledge of time, the substance gives it unique properties by exhibiting behaviors in two different time modes. Let's try to explain the issue by going into some details now.

Researchers claim that this strange dual-time phenomenon could create a new phase of matter.
The latest study, co-authored by researchers from several American Colleges and Honeywell's Quantenuum, a quantum computer company, was published in Nature late last month. Ytterbium atoms and lasers formed the experimental equipment.

A metallic material called ytterbium is unusually suited to respond to laser treatments in a particular region of the wave spectrum because of the way its electrons are arranged.

What is Ytterbium?

Ytterbium is a chemical element with symbol Yb and atomic number 70. It is the fourteenth and penultimate element in the lanthanide series and is the basis of the relative stability of the +2 oxidation state. However, like other lanthanides, the most common oxidation state is +3, as with oxide, halides, and other compounds. In aqueous solution, soluble ytterbium compounds, like compounds of other late lanthanides, form complexes with nine water molecules. Due to its closed-shell electron configuration, its density and melting and boiling points are significantly different from most other lanthanides.

The researchers first held the ytterbium atoms in place using an electric ion field that acts as a small magnet to initiate the new "dynamic topological phase," and then subjected them to laser bombardment at the appropriate wavelength to supercool the ytterbium.

ten ytterbium atoms, located in Broomfield, Colorado, QuantenuumIt's being used in a shared system that is researching to build a specific quantum computer. The computation is carried out by these ten atoms, which are interconnected by the electric fields mentioned above.

A series of atoms can be entangled, which means that although they are made up of ten different parts, they are inextricably linked and behave as a single unit. The individual atoms within it can be tuned to reflect various types of information.

Consider the way we write numbers. The highest ten digit number in binary is 111111111, totaling 1.023. However, if you type ten digits in base 10, which is our standard number calculation system, you can get 9,999,999,999. Extending the range that each digit can translate from (0, 1) allows you to do this (0, 1, . . . . . . . 8, 9).

How about a system where each of the ten atoms could theoretically be placed anywhere on the quadrant?

It sounds incredible, so you're not wrong! There are several reasons why researchers and business speculators around the world are eagerly awaiting developments in quantum computing.

Because we don't yet have a great technique to keep them in a quantum state for long, the atoms used in quantum computing—known as quantum bits or qubits—are extremely fragile.

This is due to the observer principle in quantum physics, which states that a particle can cause its quantum state to change or even disappear.

In this example, this requires freeing each particle from the common entanglement charge. Even worse, the "observer" could be anything that happens in the complex network of forces, particles, and air that surrounds the quantum computer.

Back to the new test. The 10 atoms need to be more stable because they are brittle when entangled.

Three researchers come from this group. In 2018, it was suggested that ytterbium atoms could be taught to exist simultaneously in two different timelines.

The Fibonacci sequence served as an inspiration. It is a sequence of integers that start with zero and have the simple property that each number is equal to the sum of the two preceding numbers. Row 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5 etc. starts with

In a model reminiscent of the Fibonacci sequence, in which the repetition of pulses grows by adding fragments from previous pulses, the researchers alternately turned lasers on and off to pulse atoms. But most importantly, no piece is completely repetitive.

By varying the pulses in this way, they produced a semi-crystalline, a pattern that was not as regular or repetitive as a real crystal but shared many of the same characteristics.

Combining the "size" of the pulse pattern in the Fibonacci sequence, which looks like a (x, y) line graph, with the concept of an alternative pulse, the quasi-crystal appears in two dimensions.

Each of these two dimensions has its own interpretation of how time moves through space.

Also, both are flattened and included in the single dimension of a single laser that is constantly on and off.

Four years after initially designing it, researchers have now proven that having the extra "support" of a second, imaginary time dimension makes the quantum computer much more stable.

This is because this system has two modes of time symmetry, rather than one that arises from the rhythmic pulse of lasers. Like a throat singer, it "resonates" in two patterns at the same time.

According to the results of the experiment's findings, the quantum computer retained its quantum state for 1,5 seconds in response to traditional, single-mode laser bursts, which is long for this type of test.

However, the device remained in a quantum state for 5.5 seconds after the researchers activated Fibonacci-inspired quasi-crystal pulses, an infinity in quantum computing.

While Quantenuum and its researchers are excited about the discovery, there is still a lot of work to be done. Finding a method to combine this technology with a quantum computing device that actually does any computation will be their next task. Although the qubits of the system are sensitive to the observer effect, it is hoped that the system will be supported with greater stability.

source: popularmechanics


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