The H-mode was discovered forty years ago by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics and can be particularly well suited for generating energy. The accompanying publication was published on 8 November 1982 and gave impetus to fusion research around the world. Even now, one of the most important research areas is H-mode.
A breakthrough came on Thursday when it was planned to investigate plasmas heated by a neutral beam at high temperatures. These plasmas had an unshakeable homogeneity. “But in the middle of the run, the critical plasma properties suddenly changed. In the ASDEX control room, every scientist noticed that something exceptional was happening.” Prof. D., who led this field of study at ASDEX at the time. Friedrich Wagner remembered. Back in 1982, many people initially thought they were dealing with internal energy relaxations and "dirty discharges" that looked like giant saw-tooth.
In fact, one of the most important findings to date in nuclear fusion research, Prof. It was done by Wagner and colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) in Garching: they discovered the H-mode.
An article on the subject was published in the "Physical Review Letters" on November 8, 1982. It put an end to prolonged inertia and frustration over the value of neutral beam heating in the fusion community. It's true that in the 1970s, scientists were able to heat plasmas to incredible ion temperatures of seven kiloelectronvolts, which was momentarily blissful. But it soon became clear that it was a decrease in energy confinement that was causing the high plasma temperatures. It was like valiantly warming a space while opening the windows. This plasma behavior has jeopardized the construction of a future fusion power plant.
H-mode was perceived by many in the fusion community as a measurement error.
This undesirable operating condition is now known as L-mode (Low-Limited Mode). High-Confinement Mode, or H-mode for short, is the finding of Wagner's current Garching experiment in ASDEX, the precursor to the ASDEX Upgrade. It was discussed earlier that this creates a new plasma state.
“Eventually taking on the role of director at IPP, Prof. Wagner said:
“In June 1982 I went to Italy for the Varenna Summer School, where I presented our findings to the public for the first time. After this incident, especially our American colleagues spread the news that we were measuring the plasma flow in ASDEX incorrectly.
In September, he convinced his colleagues after an hour of questioning before the next important conference in Baltimore. Later, they were also able to create the new plasma state by their own means.
Currently conducting research on H-mode at IPP, Prof. Dr. Elisabeth Wolfrum stated that “The first thing that brings to mind ITER is the discovery of the H-mode.” The world's largest fusion reactor, known as ITER, is currently being built at Cadarache in southern France. It is aimed to produce fusion plasma power ten times more than that provided by heating power. H-mode is another reason why ITER is modeled after ASDEX and ASDEX Upgrade.
This plasma state first manifested itself at ASDEX, as the plasma in the Tokamak-style annular vacuum cup was first pointed, not round.
The tip is known in physics as the X point. Here, extra energy is sent to the diverter, similar to the ash box of a fusion reactor. All existing fusion plants that confine plasma to magnetic fields use this design as a minimum requirement.
Source: Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics
Günceleme: 07/11/2022 11:20
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