The digestive system consists of the digestive system and its accessory organs, which break down food into molecules that body cells can absorb and use. Food is gradually broken down until waste products are eliminated and the molecules are small enough to be absorbed. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, commonly known as the alimentary canal, consists of a long, continuous tube that runs from the mouth to the anus. It consists of the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, pharynx and esophagus. Tongue and teeth are auxiliary structures related to the mouth. The pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and salivary glands are the main accessory organs that aid digestion. Liquids are secreted by these organs into the digestive tract.
Three different processes are carried out on food in the body:
Digestion and absorption take place in the digestive tract. All body cells can access nutrients after being absorbed and cells use them for metabolism.
Six actions or functions of the digestive system prepare food for use by body cells.
The first function of the digestive system is to get food in through the mouth. Before anything further can happen, the process known as ingestion must occur.
Large pieces of food that are swallowed must be broken down into smaller pieces so that different enzymes can work on them.
This digestive process, which begins with chewing or chewing in the mouth and continues with churning and mixing movements in the stomach, is known as mechanical digestion.
Chemical digestion breaks down large carbohydrate, protein, and lipid molecules into smaller molecules that cells can absorb and use. During chemical digestion or hydrolysis, water and digestive enzymes combine to break down complex molecules. The hydrolysis process, which is typically quite slow, is accelerated by digestive enzymes.
Digestive System Movements
After the food particles are consumed and chewed, they pass from the mouth to the pharynx and from there to the esophagus. It is this movement of deglutition, commonly known as swallowing. Contraction of smooth muscles causes mixing movements in the stomach. During these repetitive contractions, which typically take place in limited parts of the digestive tract, food particles mix with enzymes and other fluids. Peristalsis refers to the movements that move food particles through the digestive tract. Food particles are moved through repetitive waves of contraction through various areas where mechanical and chemical digestion takes place.
The cell membranes of the small intestine allow simple molecules produced by chemical digestion to enter the blood or lymph capillaries. Absorption is the name of this procedure.
The body must expel food molecules that cannot be absorbed or processed. Defecation, commonly known as elimination, is the process of expelling indigestible waste in the form of feces through the anus.
Günceleme: 25/12/2022 20:07