The chemical element aluminum has the atomic number 13 and the symbol Al. Aluminum has a density of about one-third that of steel, which is lower than most common metals. It has a strong affinity for oxygen and forms a protective oxide coating on the surface when exposed to air. Aluminum is visually similar to silver due to similarities in color and light reflectivity. It is ductile, soft and non-magnetic. Aluminum is also the twelfth most common element in the universe, based on the frequency of its only stable isotope, 27Al. Radiodating takes advantage of the radioactivity of 26Al.
What is Radiodating (Carbon Dating)?
It is a method of dating geological samples by determining the relative proportions of certain radioactive isotopes present in a sample.
Chemically, aluminum belongs to the boron group as a post-transition metal and, like other members of the group, primarily forms compounds in the +3 oxidation state. The small and strongly charged aluminum cation Al3+ becomes polarized and shows a covalent tendency in the bonds it forms. Due to its strong affinity for oxygen, aluminum often coexists with oxygen in nature in the form of oxides. As a result, aluminum is found more often in rocks in the earth's crust than in the mantle and is almost never found as a free metal. It is the third most abundant element on Earth after oxygen and silicon.
According to Danish physicist Hans Christian Ørsted, alum was discovered in 1825. French chemist Henri Étienne Sainte-Claire Deville carried out the first industrial production of aluminum in 1856. Created independently in 1886 by American engineer Charles Martin Hall and French engineer Paul Héroult, the Hall-Héroult technique greatly increased the public's access to aluminum and led to its widespread use in both industry and everyday life.
Aluminum, I. and II. It was a vital strategic resource for aircraft in World Wars. Aluminum surpassed copper in 1954 to become the most produced non-ferrous metal. Most of the aluminum is consumed for packaging, engineering, construction and transportation in Japan, Western Europe and the United States in the 21st century.
Although aluminum is widely available in the environment and plants and animals can tolerate it well, no living thing is known to use aluminum salts as an energy source. Given the prevalence of these salts, studies are underway on the possibility of a biological function for them.
Just 27Al is the only stable isotope of aluminum. This is common in elements with odd atomic number. It is the only primary isotope of aluminum, meaning it is the only isotope present on Earth since the planet's formation. This isotope of aluminum makes up nearly all of the metal on Earth, making it a mononuclidic element with a standard atomic weight nearly identical to its isotopene. Due to the great NMR sensitivity of the only stable isotope of aluminum, the metal is particularly useful in NMR. Compared to many other metals, aluminum has a low standard atomic weight.
All other aluminum isotopes are radioactive. The most stable of them 26Al; Stable in the interstellar medium where the Solar System was formed 27Although found with Al and produced by stellar nucleosynthesis, no detectable amount has remained since the planet's formation due to its short half-life of 717.000 years. However, a small amount of argon in the atmosphere is released through fragmentation caused by protons from cosmic rays. 26Al is produced.
Günceleme: 21/01/2023 08:57