Let's Get to Know the Element Phosphorus with Atomic Number 15

Let's Get to Know the Element Phosphorus with Atomic Number 15
Let's Get to Know the Element Phosphorus with Atomic Number 15

Phosphorus is a chemical element with atomic number 15 and the letter P in its name. Phosphorus is an element that occurs in two main forms: red and white. However, due to its strong reactivity, phosphorus is never found on Earth as a free element. It contains about one gram of phosphorus per kilogram of the earth's crust. Phosphorus typically occurs as phosphate in minerals.

White phosphorus, the basic form of phosphorus, was discovered in 1669. The word white phosphorus comes from Greek mythology and means "light bearer" (Lucifer in Latin), referring to the "Morning Star", the planet Venus. White phosphorus glows weakly when exposed to oxygen, hence its name. This property of phosphor is where the word phosphorescence, meaning glow after illumination, originated. However, the word has since come to refer to a different physical process that also creates a glow. The oxidation of white (but not red) phosphorus, now known as chemiluminescence, is what gives phosphorus its glow. It is a pictogen, along with phosphorus, nitrogen, arsenic, antimony, and bismuth.

Phosphorus is a component of phosphates, molecules that contain the phosphate ion PO43, which is crucial for sustaining life. Phosphates are an essential part of phospholipids, DNA, RNA, ATP and other complex molecules found in cells. Human urine was the first source of elemental phosphorus isolation, and early sources of phosphate included bone ash. Phosphate mines contain fossils, as phosphate is found in fossilized deposits of animal remains and feces. In some aquatic environments, low phosphate levels pose a significant growth restriction. Most of the extracted phosphorus compounds are used as fertilizers. The annual need for phosphate is increasing at about twice the rate of human population growth because plants must replace the phosphorus they extract from the soil.

Organophosphorus chemicals are also used in nerve agents, pesticides, and detergents.

Phosphorus exists in a number of allotropes with quite different properties. White phosphorus and red phosphorus are the two most common allotropes.

The most important type of elemental phosphorus in terms of applications and chemical literature is white phosphorus, often abbreviated as WP. tetrahedral P, each of which has a single formal bond connecting each of its four atoms to the other three4 It is a soft, waxy solid made up of molecules. This P4 The tetrahedron can also be found in liquid or gaseous phosphorus up to 800 °C (1.470 °F), at which point P2 begins to separate into molecules.

P in the gas phase4 Gas electron diffraction is used to calculate the PP bond length of the molecule, which is rg = 2.1994 Angstroms. Spherical aromaticity or cluster bonding, in which electrons are largely delocalized, this P4 can be used to characterize the bond type in the tetrahedron. Calculations of magnetically generated currents totaling 11 nA/T, much more than 29 nA/T of the typical aromatic molecule benzene, have been used to demonstrate this.

White phosphorus has two crystal forms: (alpha) and (beta) (beta). Its form can remain stable at room temperature. More common, it has a cubic crystal structure and at 195,2 K (78,0 °C) it transforms into the -form, which has a hexagonal crystal structure. The P that creates these forms4 The relative orientations of tetrahedra vary between these forms. Three slightly different P in the form of white phosphorus4 molecule or 2.1768 different PP bond lengths between 2.1920 and 18 Angstrom. PP bonds are typically 2.183 Å (Angström) long.

Source: Wikipedia


Günceleme: 23/01/2023 14:51

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