Let's Get to Know the Element Potassium with Atomic Number 19

Let's Get to Know the Element Potassium with Atomic Number
Let's Get to Know the Element Potassium with Atomic Number

The chemical element potassium has the atomic number 19 and the letter K (meaning kalium in Neo-Latin). It is a silvery-white metal that can be easily sliced ​​with a knife thanks to its flexibility. Within seconds of exposure, the potassium metal rapidly combines with the oxygen in the air to produce scaly, white potassium peroxide. It was originally separated from potash, which was formed from plant ashes and got its name.

One of the alkali metals in the periodic table is potassium. All of these metals have a single valence electron in their outer electron shell, which can be easily removed to produce a positively charged ion (which combines with anions to form salt). Potassium is found in nature only as ionic salts.

Potassium interacts violently with water, producing enough heat to ignite the hydrogen released during the reaction, producing a purple flame. It is found in numerous minerals, including orthoclase, a typical component of granites and other igneous rocks, and is found dissolved in seawater.

The previous element in group 1 of the periodic table, sodium and potassium share many chemical similarities. Initial ionization energies are similar, allowing each atom to surrender only its outer electron. In 1702 they were assumed to be separate elements combining with the same anions to form comparable salts; Electrolysis was used to demonstrate this hypothesis in 1807. Three isotopes of potassium make up naturally occurring potassium, of which 40K is radioactive.

Potassium contains traces of 40K, the most common radioisotope in the human body.

All living cells need potassium ions to function properly. Normal nerve conduction requires the transfer of potassium ions across nerve cell membranes; Potassium deficiency and excess can cause a variety of signs and symptoms, including irregular heart rhythm and other electrocardiographic abnormalities. Fresh produce is a good source of potassium for the diet. When dietary potassium intake is increased, the body responds by redistributing potassium from the outside into the cells and increasing potassium excretion by the kidneys.

Many of the industrial uses of potassium take advantage of the strong water solubility of its compounds, such as in seawater soap.

Agrochemicals containing potassium, which accounts for 95% of the world's chemical potassium production, can be used to replenish soil potassium that is depleted due to intensive crop production.

Etymology of Potassium

The word "potash", which describes an ancient technique of combining water and burnt wood or tree leaves in a container, to heat the mixture and leave it to cool, to make various potassium salts, is where the word "potassium" originates. Humphry Davy named the element potassium, derived from the word potash, after first separating it electrochemically in 1807.

The letter K is derived from the Arabic term al-qalyah meaning "plant ash" and the root word kali. German chemist Martin Klaproth discovered in 1797 that "potash" was not a byproduct of plant growth, but instead contained a new element in the minerals leucite and lepidolite, which he proposed to call kali. Humphry Davy created the element in 1807 using electrolysis; Ludwig Wilhelm Gilbert proposed the name Kalium for Davy's “potassium” in 1809. The Swedish chemist Berzelius promoted the use of the name kalium and the chemical symbol K for potassium in 1814.

The names Potassium and Kalium are used in English and French speaking nations, while the name Davy and Gay-Lussac / Thénard's is used in Germanic nations.

The “Gold Book” of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry has adopted K as its official chemical symbol.



Günceleme: 31/01/2023 13:07

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