Let's Get to Know the Element Silicon with Atomic Number 14

Let's Get to Know the Element Silicon with Atomic Number
Let's Get to Know the Element Silicon with Atomic Number

The chemical element silicon has the atomic number 14 and the symbol Si. It is a tetravalent metalloid and semiconductor that has a blue-gray metallic luster and is a hard, brittle crystalline solid. It belongs to the 14th group on the periodic table, located above carbon and below germanium, tin, lead and flerovium. It doesn't react too much.

Due to its strong chemical affinity for oxygen, Jöns Jakob Berzelius was not able to prepare and analyze it in pure form until 1823. Its oxides belong to the silicate anion family. Among all metalloids and nonmetals, only boron has higher melting and boiling temperatures than 1414 °C and 3265 °C.

Silicon is the eighth most common element by mass in the universe, but it is very rarely seen as a pure element in the Earth's crust. It is widely distributed in space as different types of silicon dioxide (silica) or as cosmic dusts, planetariums and silicates on planets. Since silicate minerals make up more than 90% of the earth's crust, silicon is the second most common element in the earth's crust after oxygen (about 28% by mass).

Most of the silicon used in industry is not separated, and natural minerals are generally little processed. The use of clay, silica sand and stone in industrial construction is an example of this use. To produce concrete for pavements, foundations and roads, silicates are combined with silica sand and gravel in Portland cement, which is also used to make mortar and plaster. They are also used in white ceramics such as porcelain, silicate-based classical soda-lime glass and various special glasses. High-strength ceramics are made with silicon compounds, such as silicon carbide, as the abrasive. Silicon is derived from the commonly used synthetic polymers silicon.

The late 20th and early 21st centuries have been referred to as the "Silicon Age" (sometimes referred to as the "Digital Age" or "Information Age") because of the significant impact of elemental silicon on the current global economy. Transistors and integrated circuit chips used in most modern technology, including smartphones and other computers, depend on small amounts of very pure elemental silicon used in semiconductor electronics. Networks and communications equipment accounted for 2019% of the semiconductor market segment in 32,4; By 2027, this category is expected to account for $726,73 billion of the global semiconductor market.

A very important component of biology is silica. Although some sea sponges and microbes such as diatoms and radiolaria build silica-based skeletal systems, most animals need only trace amounts of silica. Some plant tissues contain silica deposits.

History of Silicon

Since silicon is abundant in the earth's crust, natural silicon-based compounds have been used for a very long time. Many ancient civilizations were familiar with silicon rock crystals; Among them were the predynastic Egyptians and ancient Chinese, who used silicon to make beads and miniature vases. At least BC. Since 1500, both the ancient Phoenicians and Egyptians have produced glass containing silica. In the construction of early human settlements, many types of mortar also used natural silicate compounds.

Discovery of Silicon

The element silicon was discovered in 1823 by Jons Jacob Berzelius. Antoine Lavoisier hypothesized in 1787 that silica might be the oxide of an essential chemical element, but due to silicon's high chemical affinity for oxygen, he lacked the means to reduce the oxide and isolate the element. Sir Humphry Davy coined the term "silicium" for silicon after attempting to isolate silicon in 1808. He derived the term from the Latin silex, silicis flint and added the suffix "-ium" because he thought it was a metal. Davy's name has been translated into most other languages ​​from time to time with some phonological adaptations (for example, German Silizium, Turkish silicium, Catalan silici, Armenian or Silitzioum).

Gay-Lussac and Thénard are thought to have formed impure amorphous silicon in 1811 by heating recently isolated potassium metal with silicon tetrafluoride; however, they did not define or characterize the product, nor did they accept it as a new element. Scottish scientist Thomas Thomson gave silicon its current name in 1817. He retained part of Davy's name but added the "-on" because he thought silicon was a nonmetal similar to boron and carbon. Jöns Jacob Berzelius created amorphous silicon in 1824 by reducing potassium fluorosilicate with molten potassium metal. However, he constantly washed the product he obtained and turned it into a brown powder. For this reason, he is often credited for discovering the element.

That same year, Carl Wilhelm Scheele formed silicon tetrafluoride by dissolving silica in hydrofluoric acid; however, it was Berzelius who first created silicon tetrachloride. Jacob Berzelius made the first discovery of silicon tetrachloride in 1823. (SiCl4). Tetraethyl orthosilicate (Si(OC2H5)4) was created by Von Ebelman in 1846.

But 31 years later, silicon was produced by Deville in the more widely used crystalline form. Deville was able to form a slightly impure allotrope of silicon in 1854 by electrolysis of a solution of sodium chloride and aluminum chloride containing about 10% silicon. Later, more affordable techniques were created to isolate various forms of allotropes; The last of these was deleted in 2010.

Although early speculation on the subject dates back to the beginning of synthetic organic chemistry in the 1830s, Friedrich Wöhler discovered the first volatile hydrides of silicon by synthesizing trichlorosilane in 1857 and silane itself in 1858. However, Alfred Stock did not conduct extensive research on silanes until the early 20th century. Similarly, Charles Friedel and James Crafts synthesized the first organosilicon chemical, tetraethylsilane, in 1863, but Frederic Kipping did not characterize organosilicon chemistry until the early 20th century.

With Linus Pauling developing crystal chemistry and Victor Goldschmidt developing geochemistry, William Lawrence Bragg's X-ray crystallography work, which began in the 1920s, shed light on the compositions of silicates previously known but not yet understood from analytical chemistry. The industrial application and progress of the chemistry of siloxanes took place in the mid-20th century and there was an increase in the use of silicone polymers, elastomers and resins. The complex crystal chemistry of silicides was mapped in the late 20th century, along with the solid-state physics of doped semiconductors.

Source: Wikipedia

 

 

 

 

Günceleme: 22/01/2023 16:32

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