How Egyptian Civilization Was Born - Technology, Medicine, Maritime

How Egyptian Civilization Was Born Technology Type Maritime
How Egyptian Civilization Was Born Technology Type Maritime

Egyptian civilization arose in the Nile river valley. The Nile river was constantly flooding during the summer months, making the soils fertile again. Therefore, people started to settle in this valley and started farming. Egyptian civilization arose in the Neolithic Age, about 5000 years ago. The first Egyptian kingdom was founded about 3150 years ago.

During the first kingdom period, Egyptian civilization was primarily engaged in agriculture by taking advantage of the fertile lands of the Nile river. During this period, the Egyptians established water channels, dams, and irrigation systems, making agriculture more efficient. At the same time, the arts and trade flourished, such as construction, metalworking, textiles, silver and gold working. In the following periods, Egyptian civilization was also strengthened socially, culturally and politically, and kingdoms, faraons and empires with a long history were formed. Egyptian civilization has an important place in the history of the ancient world.

Egyptian civilization also made significant advances in science, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, architecture and art. The Egyptians were able to predict the annual floods of the Nile, thereby making agriculture more productive. At the same time, in mathematics, they developed subjects such as geometry and trigonometry. Egyptian civilization is also known for the mummification of the dead, important structures such as the pyramids, and writing systems such as hieroglyphics. The Egyptian Civilization is considered perhaps one of the oldest and most impressive civilizations in the world.

The Egyptians developed various mathematical concepts and methods for describing, measuring, and using numbers and numbers in particular. Also, the Egyptians had knowledge of astronomy to follow the path of the stars and the sun and to create calendars. Egyptian medicine was advanced, especially in the field of surgery, and the Egyptians developed a variety of medicines and treatments. Egyptian archeology focuses on studying the remains of Egyptian civilization and provides important information about Egyptian history and culture.

We have little information about the details of the scientific studies of the Egyptian civilization in some areas due to the lack of written sources. However, the Egyptian ulema left documents that they did important scientific work in mathematics, astronomy, medicine and other fields. For example, the Egyptians had a very good understanding of mathematical subjects such as geometry, trigonometry, and the calculator. In addition, the Egyptians made important contributions to astronomy, especially their knowledge of the movements of the stars and the sun. Egyptian medicine was particularly advanced in the field of surgery, and the Egyptians had developed a variety of medicines and treatments. Egyptian archeology focuses on studying the remains of Egyptian civilization and provides important information about Egyptian history and culture.

Technology in Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt achieved a relatively high quality of productivity and expertise in technology, medicine, and mathematics. Egypt is thought to have developed traditional empiricism because of the Edwin Smith and Ebers papyri (circa 1600 BC). Egypt developed its own alphabet and metric system.

Tiles and Glass in Ancient Egypt

Tile is a vitreous material that the Ancient Egyptians produced before the Old Kingdom period and viewed it as a type of synthetic semi-precious stone. The non-clay ceramic, called tiles, is made from silica, traces of lime and soda, and a coloring agent, usually copper. This material was used to make figurines, beads, tiles and other small items. Tiles can be made in a variety of ways, but traditionally the process requires a paste-like mixture of powdered ingredients to be spread over a clay core and baked. Egyptian blue, sometimes known as blue frit, is a pigment made by fusing (or sintering) silica, copper, lime, and an alkali such as natron. The ancient Egyptians created it using a similar procedure.

Medicine in Ancient Egypt

The health problems of the ancient Egyptians were closely related to the environment in which they lived. Living and working close to the Nile brought risks such as malaria and disabling schistosomiasis, as well as parasites that cause liver and intestinal damage. Crocodiles and hippos, two dangerous animals, were frequent threats. The body has suffered severe damage from construction projects and wartime injuries, as well as a lifetime of farming and construction work that puts a strain on the spine and joints. The grit and grit of the stone-ground flour eroded the teeth, making them vulnerable to abscess (but cavities were rare).

Diets of the rich in sweets promoted periodontal disease. Despite the attractive physiques depicted on the tomb walls, many upper-class mummies are overweight and show reflections of an extravagant life. Males and females could expect to live to about 35 and 30, respectively, as adults, but this was difficult to do as about a third of people died before they reached the age of five.

Maritime Technology in Ancient Egypt

As early as 3000 BC, the early Egyptians had mastered complex shipbuilding techniques and knew how to put wooden planks together to make a ship's hull. According to the Archaeological Institute of America, the Abydos boats are the first known timbered watercraft. The 14 ships found in Abydos are made of wooden planks "stitched" together. According to Egyptologist David O'Connor of New York University, webbing straps were used to bind the planks together and thatch or grass was placed between the planks to help seal the seams.

Originally all 14 ships were thought to belong to Pharaoh Khasekhemwy because they were all buried together and close to his morgue. However, one of the ships is dated to 3000 BC and the pottery buried with the ships also points to an earlier chronology. The 3000 feet (75 meters) long ship, dating from 23 BC, is now believed to belong to a pharaoh who reigned before Hor-Aha.

The ancient Egyptians were also adept at putting wooden boards together, attaching them with nails, and sealing the seams with pitch. A surviving full-size example that may have served the symbolic role of a solar bartender is the “Khufu ship,” a 2500-metre (43,6-foot) ship that was encased in a ditch in the Giza pyramid complex at the foot of the Great Pyramid of Giza during the Fourth Dynasty, circa 143 BC. Mortise and tenon joints were also used by the ancient Egyptians to join the boards of this ship.

Mathematics in Ancient Egypt

The earliest documented examples of arithmetic computation are from the predynastic Nakada period and show a fully formed number system. Mathematics is important to an educated Egyptian when, in a hypothetical New Kingdom letter, the author suggests that there was scientific competition between himself and another scribe over routine arithmetic tasks such as accounting for land, labor, and grain. According to texts such as the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus and the Moscow Mathematical Papyrus, the Ancient Egyptians were able to perform four basic mathematical operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division), use fractions, calculate the areas of rectangles, triangles, and circles, and calculate the volumes of boxes, columns, and pyramids. They could solve easy sets of simultaneous equations and understand the basics of algebra and geometry.

Hieroglyphic symbols for every power of ten up to one million formed the basis of decimal mathematical notation. To write the number eighty or eight hundred, the symbol ten or hundred was written eight times, respectively. Each of these could be written as needed to reach the desired number. They had to write fractions as the sum of many fractions because their arithmetic techniques couldn't handle most fractions with a numerator greater than one. For example, they combined one-third and one-fifth to represent two-fifths. This is made easier by widely used value tables. The current two-thirds are shown on the right, but a few common fractions are written with a unique glyph.

Source: Wikipedia

 

Günceleme: 22/01/2023 20:40

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