A chemical element with symbol Sc and atomic number 21 is called scandium. It is a metallic, silvery-white d-block element. It was once categorized as a rare earth element along with yttrium and the lanthanides. The Scandinavian minerals euxenite and gadolinite were first described in 1879 by spectral analysis.
Scandium is found in most combination sources of rare earth and uranium, but is obtained from these ores in only a small number of mines worldwide. Applications for scandium were not established until the 1970s, when scandium's beneficial effects on aluminum alloys were determined, due to its low availability and difficulties in the synthesis of metallic scandium, which was first performed in 1937.
Its only significant use in these alloys still continues. Globally, 15 to 20 tons of scandium oxide are traded annually.
Compounds made from scandium have properties that fall between aluminum and yttrium. Similar to the behavior of beryllium and aluminum, magnesium and scandium also exhibit a diagonal relationship in their behavior. The common oxidation state in chemical compounds of elements in group 3 is +3.
Chemical Properties of Scandium Element
Scandium is a metal with a soft and silvery appearance. It turns slightly reddish or yellowish when exposed to air. It tarnishes easily and is only partially soluble in most weak acids.
It does not react with a 3:1 mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and nitric acid (HNO1), probably because an impenetrable passive layer has formed. When scandium spins ignite in the atmosphere, a vibrant yellow flame is produced, forming scandium oxide.
Isotopes of Scandium Element
The only stable isotope of scandium that can be discovered in nature is 7Sc with a nuclear spin of 2/45. Twenty-five radioisotopes have been identified; The most stable are the positron emitter 4Sc with a half-life of 44 hours, 3,35Sc with a half-life of 47 days, and 43,7Sc with a half-life of 48 hours. All currently available radioactive isotopes have half-lives less than 4 hours, and most of them less than 2 minutes.
Also, this element has five nuclear isomers and 44m2Sc (t1/2 = 58.6 hours) is the most stable.
Scandium has isotopes ranging from 36Sc to 60Sc. Beta emission is the main decay mode at masses above 45Sc, the only stable isotope, while electron capture is the main mode at masses below this. Calcium isotopes are the main decay products at atomic weights below 45Sc, while titanium isotopes are the main products at higher atomic weights.
Günceleme: 03/02/2023 15:11
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