Which animals, living or extinct, have been recorded as having the highest biting power?
Tyrannosaurs like Megalodon and tyrannosaurus rex appear frequently in science fiction for their savage bites. But which species, living or extinct, actually bite with the greatest force?
Bite force is the force produced by the muscles and bones of the upper and lower jaws when an animal bites, according to a study published in the journal Frontiers. Animals with strong bites typically have no trouble squeezing their prey. Some predators can even pierce the particularly tough armor of their prey.
According to a 2012 study published in the journal PLOS One, the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) has the strongest known bite force of any living creature, at 16.460 newtons. For comparison, a quarter pound force is equivalent to one newton force. When a saltwater crocodile is about to die, its jaws snap shut with tremendous force.
Due to the fact that these animals are aquatic predators, it has not been possible to test in a live scenario the bite strengths of two rivals that could compete with and perhaps defeat the crocodile. According to computer simulations used in a study published in the Journal of Zoology in 2008, the estimated bite force of the orca (Orcinus orca) of 84.516 newtons, if confirmed, will be the strongest, followed by the estimated bite force of the great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) of approximately 18.000 newtons. .
With a deadly force of 68 newtons when it beat the Earth between 66 and 35.000 million years ago, T. rex could be the ruler of extinct animals. The gigantic shark Megalodon (Otodus megalodon), with a bite force of up to 182.200 newtons, swept the waters between 15 million and 3,6 million years ago. Meanwhile, the shark's ability to defeat the dinosaur is still being debated. Because shark and dinosaur jaws have different types and amounts of teeth, it's difficult to compare them, according to Jack Tseng, a biologist and assistant professor of integrative biology at the University of California, Berkeley.
Bite force can be directly measured or estimated. The severe bite of a saltwater crocodile was measured by the scientists by biting it on a force gauge. The bite force of actual species, such as orcas and sharks, which scientists cannot test in this way, is based on what is known about their body composition, shape, and type of prey they pursue.
Extinct animals, on the other hand, are more difficult. Researchers use computer simulations to reconstruct jaw muscles that have already rotted away because only the jawbones remain in a skull.
What are the ingredients that make a bite crackle?
There are many features. Another weapon is teeth. Only the T. rex's head could crush bones, but it also had teeth that looked like serrated blades. If you ask Daniel Huber, professor and chair of environmental studies at the University of Tampa in Florida, there is one trait that dominates the others.
According to Huber, the most important factor determining bite force is body size.
According to Huber, a predator's size outweighs all other factors, from the size of its head to how strong its prey is. The muscles that close the jaw bones, known as adductors, are very important. It is stated that the size and placement of these adductors may have been altered by evolution to increase the amount of muscle force that can be converted into bite force.
Computer simulations of the dinosaur monarch show that the legendary T. rex had powerful jaws. According to Huber, estimates of the dinosaur's bite force rise when the sharpness of its teeth is taken into account. But in addition to the bite force, these sharp teeth also exert additional bite pressure that adds to the overall force.
Accordingly, “such a force will be focused on the tip of the tooth,” Tseng continues, “the sharper the tooth tip, the greater the potential bite force given the same input muscle effort.
Not all monsters with strong bites are big and toothy. Some do not even act as predators. A 2019 study published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B revealed that the Galapagos great ground finch (Geospiza magnirostris) has the strongest bite force relative to its size. The study revealed that although this bird weighs only about 1 ounce (33 grams), it has the strongest bite force for its size and can crush hard nuts and seeds with a force of 70 newtons. The sparrow now has 320 times the bite force of a Tyrannosaurus rex.
What about people? Our species only has a bite force of about 1.000 newtons, so we're not even in the same league.
Source: Live Science
📩 22/03/2023 13:09