Scientists have succeeded in developing the first and complete living model of the human brain developing in a laboratory setting.

Scientists have succeeded in developing the first and full living model of the human brain developing in a laboratory environment. Experts stated that the success achieved by using stem cells will open new doors in studies on the human brain.
Scientists were able to develop brain tissue the size of a bean from human stem cells under special conditions they provided in a laboratory environment. The tissues grew into specific areas of the brain, namely the cerebral cortex and retina.

mini-brains, microcephaly; it was used to model the ailment that causes the brain to be abnormally small. While they do not offer consciousness or sensory functions like the normal human brain, mini-brains offer an important opportunity to study the developing human brain.

Jüergen Knoblich, from the Austrian Academy of Molecular Biotechnology Sciences in Vienna, who took part in the research, mentioned that it is not possible to test mini-brains on animals, and said, “The mouse brain does not offer a good model system for the human brain… The system we have developed will enable us to examine the specific features of the human brain in the development process. " said.
Knoblich, at a press conference, stated that 'scientists have managed to develop nerve tissue in the laboratory in the past, but this is the first time that a tissue containing the cortex and other regions of the brain has been obtained'.

STEM CELL MIRACLE
To develop mini-brains, Knoblich and colleagues took human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells, both of which are used to develop all kinds of tissue, and put them in a special environment where they become 'neuroectoderm' tissue that develops into the nervous system.

Tissues in the form of gel droplets continued to be added to promote tissue growth. The droplets were then placed in a rotating bioreactor. Thus, the ability of the tissue to absorb nutrients is increased.

After about 15-20 days, the tissue became a cerebral ventricle (brain ventricle) called 'cerebral organoid' and containing cerebrospinal fluid just like the human brain. After 20-30 days, some of the organoids formed certain parts of the brain, such as the cerebral cortex and the retina, the light-perceiving part of the eye.

The mini-brains grew 2-3 millimeters in diameter, NBC News reported. The resulting mini-brains also managed to survive in experimental containers, where they were kept in the laboratory for 10 months. The underdeveloped circulatory systems and poor distribution of oxygen and nutrients caused the mini-brains to be limited in size. As a result, multiple layers did not arise as in the human brain.

IT WILL HELP UNDERSTAND BRAIN DISEASES
Organoids, which are models of how the human brain develops, could be of great benefit to the scientific world in the understanding and treatment of brain disorders.

Knoblich and his colleagues developed an organoid by programming cells from the skin of a microcephaly patient as stem cells and began to study this condition.

The researchers noticed that although microcephalic brains remained smaller, they produced much more nerve cells. From this it became clear that the brain had developed too many nerve cells before it had reached sufficient growth.

Biologist Gong Chen from the University of Pennsylvania in the USA, who was not involved in the mini-brain research, said that the study, which he described as "a great success", "will open new doors in many fields by using human nerve cells".

Noting that mini-brains can be used to develop new treatments and research brain disorders, Knoblich said, "We can learn about more common disorders such as schizophrenia and autism." Knoblich noted that the development of mini-brains is still in its early stages and this skill will increase over time.

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Source : ntvmsnbc

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