Today in the History of Science: DNA Molecular Structure Found

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April 25 is the 115nd (116rd in leap years) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 250.

Today in the History of Science

  • April 25, 1840 - Siméon Denis Poisson, French mathematician and physicist, died.
  • April 25, 1874 Italian inventor, physicist and Nobel Prize winner Guglielmo Marconi was born.
  • April 25, 1900 Austrian physicist and Nobel Prize laureate Wolfgang Pauli was born.
  • April 25, 1901 - New York became the first state to make license plates mandatory for cars.
  • April 25, 1953 - Two scientists at Cambridge University found the molecular structure they called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which carries hereditary characteristics from parent to child.
  • On April 25, 1961, the patent for the integrated circuit was received by Robert Noyce.
  • On April 25, 1990, the $2,5 billion Hubble Space Telescope was placed in orbit 613 km from Earth from the Space Shuttle Discovery.

Events

  • 1719 - Daniel Defoe's famous novel, Robinson Crusoe published.
  • 1859 – The excavation of the Suez Canal, which will connect the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, begins in Port Said, Egypt.
  • 1915 – Anglo-French forces launched a landing operation in Çanakkale. Land wars have begun.
  • 1915 – Battle of Seddülbahir started.
  • 1915 – Battle of Arıburnu started.
  • 1925 - Field Marshal Hindenburg becomes Germany's first President to be elected by popular vote.
  • 1926 - Reza Khan Pahlavi proclaimed himself "Shah" in Iran.
  • 1945 – Delegates from 46 countries met in San Francisco to establish the United Nations, which would replace the League of Nations.
  • 1946 – Garanti Bank of Turkey was established.
  • 1952 – Prime Minister Adnan Menderes and Foreign Minister Fuad Köprülü made an official visit to Greece.
  • 1953 - Two scientists at Cambridge University discovered the molecular structure they called deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which carries inherited traits from parent to child.
  • 1957 – An earthquake with a magnitude of 7,1 occurred in the Fethiye district of Muğla: 67 people died.
  • 1962 – The Constitutional Court was established.
  • 1967 – Artist Lale Oraloğlu, who started a hunger strike on April 11, after the performance of the play "If the women say I-Ih" was banned, got worse and was hospitalized.
  • 1968 – Andre Malraux's book “Hope” translated into Turkish was confiscated on the grounds of “communist propaganda”.
  • 1974 – Carnation Revolution in Portugal: Salazar's fascist dictatorship is overthrown by a military uprising led by General Antonio Spinola.
  • 1975 – Bilderberg meeting, attended by famous western businessmen, was held in Çeşme.
  • 1975 – In Portugal, the Socialist Party, led by Mario Soares, wins the elections to the Constituent Assembly.
  • 1976 – The Socialist Party led by Mario Soares won the first parliamentary elections in Portugal after the fascist dictatorship.
  • 1980 – The Process Leading to the 12 September 1980 Coup in Turkey (1979 - 12 September 1980): Left-wing militants Seyit Konuk, İbrahim Ethem Coşkun and Necati Vardar killed the contractor Nuri Yapıcı in İzmir. 15 people were killed across the country.
  • 1983 - Pioneer 10 crossed the orbit of Pluto.
  • 1986 – The Istanbul Public Prosecutor's Office decided to "put in a bag" the "Playboy" magazine, which was included in the "dirty publication".
  • 1990 – The United Communist Party of Turkey (TBKP) executives, Nabi Yağcı and Nihat Sargın, who started a death fast on April 6, interrupted their death fast.
  • 1990 - The crew of the US space shuttle Discovery succeeds in putting the first space telescope, Hubble, into orbit around the earth.
  • 2000 – Presidents of the five political parties that have groups in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey signed the proposal that nominates the President of the Constitutional Court, Ahmet Necdet Sezer, to the Presidency and presented it to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.
  • 2001 – Former President of the Philippines, Joseph Estrada, is arrested at his home in Manila on charges of siphoning his country's $80 million.
  • 2001 – The law bringing autonomy to the Central Bank was passed in the Turkish Grand National Assembly.
  • 2005 – Negotiations for Bulgaria and Romania's entry into the European Union started.

Births

  • 32 – Otho, Roman Emperor (d. 69)
  • 1599 – Oliver Cromwell, English politician and soldier (leader of the rebellion against absolutism in England) (d.
  • 1657 – Tökeli İmre, Hungarian King (who took refuge in the Ottoman Empire) (d. 1705)
  • 1725 – Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller, German zoologist (d. 1776)
  • 1815 – Mirza Shirazi, Islamic scholar (d. 1895)
  • 1823 – Sultan Abdülmecit, 31st Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (d. 1861)
  • 1824 – Gustave Boulanger, French classical figure painter and naturalist (d. 1888)
  • 1874 – Guglielmo Marconi, Italian inventor, physicist, and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (d. 1937)
  • 1888 – Chojun Miyagi, Japanese athlete and karate (d. 1953)
  • 1900 – Wolfgang Pauli, Austrian physicist and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (d. 1958)
  • 1906 – Frank H. Netter, American painter and medical doctor (d. 1991)
  • 1917 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (d. 1996)
  • 1920 – Sabahattin Kudret Aksal, Turkish poet, storyteller and playwright (d. 1993)
  • 1921 – Karel Appel, Dutch painter and sculptor (d. 2006)
  • 1927 – Albert Uderzo, French comics artist and screenwriter (d. 2020)
  • 1936 – Leonel Sánchez, Chilean football player
  • 1937 – Marilyn B. Young, American historian and academic (d. 2017)
  • 1940 - Al Pacino, American actor and winner of the Academy Award for Best Actor
  • 1941 – Bertrand Tavernier, French film director, producer, screenwriter and actor (b. 2021)
  • 1945 – Özdemir Özok, Turkish lawyer (d. 2010)
  • 1947 – Johan Cruyff, Dutch football player and manager (d. 2016)
  • 1948 – Péter Andorai, Hungarian actor (d. 2020)
  • 1959 – Burhan Öçal, Turkish percussionist and actor
  • 1960 – Ramón Vilalta, architect of Catalan origin
  • 1965 – Édouard Ferrand, French politician (d. 2018)
  • 1968 – İdris Bal, Turkish academic and politician
  • 1969 – Renée Zellweger, American actress and winner of the Academy Award for Best Actress, Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
  • 1970 - Jason Lee, American actor
  • 1981 - Felipe Massa, Brazilian Formula 1 driver
  • 1986 – Raïs M'Bolhi is a French football player of Algerian descent.
  • 1986 – Daniel Andrew Sharman, English actor
  • 1988 – Laura Lepistö, Finnish figure skater
  • 1989 – Aysel Teymurzade, Azerbaijani singer
  • 1993 – Raphaël Varane, French national football player
  • 1995 – Ellen Benediktson, Swedish singer and songwriter.
  • 1996 - Allisyn Ashley Arm is an American actress.
  • 1998 – Satou Sabally, Gambian-born German professional basketball player.

Deaths

  • 1077 – Géza I, 7th King of the Kingdom of Hungary (b. 1040)
  • 1185 – Antoku, 81st Emperor of Japan (b. 1178)
  • 1342 – XII. Benedict, 197th Pope of the Catholic Church (b. 1285)
  • 1472 – Leon Battista Alberti, Italian painter, poet, and philosopher (b. 1404)
  • 1566 – Louise Labé, French poet (b. 1524)
  • 1644 – Chongzhen, 16th and last Emperor of China's Ming Dynasty (B. 1611)
  • 1667 – Pedro de Betancur, Spanish Christian saint and missionary (b. 1626)
  • 1744 – Anders Celsius, Swedish astronomer (b. 1701)
  • 1800 – William Cowper, English poet and humanist (b. 1731)
  • 1820 – Constantin François de Chassebœuf, French philosopher, historian, orientalist, and politician (b. 1757)
  • 1840 – Siméon Denis Poisson, French mathematician and physicist (b. 1781)
  • 1878 – Anna Sewell, English novelist (b. 1820)
  • 1914 – Géza Fejérváry, Hungarian soldier and Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Hungary (b. 1833)
  • 1928 – Pyotr Wrangel, Russian soldier (leader of the counter-revolutionary White Army) (b. 1878)
  • 1941 – Salih Bozok, Turkish soldier, Atatürk's aide and Deputy (b. 1881)
  • 1956 – Paul Renner, German graphic designer and instructor (b. 1878)
  • 1972 – George Sanders, English actor (b. 1906)
  • 1976 – Sir Carol Reed, English film director and producer (b. 1906)
  • 1982 – WR Burnett, American novelist and screenwriter (b. 1899)
  • 1988 – Clifford D. Simak, American author (b. 1904)
  • 1990 – Dexter Gordon, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1923)
  • 1995 – Ginger Rogers, American actress and dancer (b. 1911)
  • 1996 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer, filmmaker, and Academy Award winner (b. 1920)
  • 2001 – Michele Alboreto, Italian racing driver (b. 1956)
  • 2002 – Ahmet Uğurlu, Turkish industrialist (founder of the “Uğurgül” factories, which produced the first television tube in Turkey) (b. 1930)
  • 2002 – Lisa Lopes, American singer (b. 1971)
  • 2003 – Lynn Chadwick, British sculptor (b. 1914)
  • 2006 – Jane Jacobs, American-Canadian female journalist, author, and activist (b. 1916)
  • 2009 – Beatrice Arthur, American actress and singer (b. 1922)
  • 2011 – Osman Durali, Turkish-Bulgarian wrestler (b. 1939)
  • 2011 – Güven Sazak, Turkish businessman and President of Fenerbahçe Sports Club (b. 1935)
  • 2012 – Louis le Brocquy, Irish painter (b. 1916)
  • 2012 – Paul L. Smith, American actor, comedian, and voice actor (b. 1936)
  • 2013 – Virginia Gibson, American singer, dancer, and actress (b. 1925)
  • 2014 – Tito Vilanova, Spanish football player and manager (b. 1968)
  • 2015 – Dan Fredinburg, American computer scientist and computer engineer (b. 1981)
  • 2015 – Otakar Krámský, Czech speedway driver (b. 1959)
  • 2016 – Samantha Schubert, Malaysian actress and Beauty Queen (b. 1969)
  • 2017 – Philippe Mestre, French politician (b. 1927)
  • 2017 – Yelena Rjevskaya, Soviet writer (b. 1919)
  • 2017 – Munyua Waiyaki, Kenyan politician and physician (b. 1925)
  • 2018 – Şöhret Abbasov, Uzbek actor, film director, screenwriter and film producer (b. 1931)
  • 2018 – Michael Anderson, British film director (b. 1920)
  • 2018 – Abbas Attar, Iranian photographer (b. 1944)
  • 2018 – Edith MacArthur, Scottish actress (b. 1926)
  • 2019 – Robbert de Graaf, Dutch racing cyclist (b. 1991)
  • 2019 – John Havlicek, American professional basketball player (b. 1940)
  • 2019 – Larry Jenkins, American actor, filmmaker, director, and screenwriter (b. 1955)
  • 2019 – Faty Papy, Burundian national football player (b. 1990)
  • 2020 – Alan Abel, American musician, educator, and inventor (b. 1928)
  • 2020 – India Adams, American singer, dubbing artist and actress (b. 1927)
  • 2020 – Erin Babcock, Canadian nurse and politician (b. 1981)
  • 2020 – Ricardo Brennand, Brazilian businessman, engineer, and art collector in the state of Pernambuco (b. 1927)
  • 2020 – Ricardo Divila, Brazilian motorsport designer (b. 1945)
  • 2020 – Henri Kichka, Belgian writer (b. 1926)
  • 2020 – Robert Mandell, American-born British conductor (b. 1929)
  • 2020 – Gunnar Seijbold, Swedish photographer and musician (b. 1955)
  • 2021 – Hamid Casimiyan, Iranian football player (b. 1936)

Holidays and special occasions

  • Parent Alienation Awareness Day
  • Turkey Statistics Day
  • World Malaria Day
  • DNA Day
  • Carnation Revolution (Portugal)

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