Today in the History of Science: Moscow Metro Opened

moscow metro
moscow metro

May 15 is the 135st day of the year (136nd in leap years) according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 230.

Today in the History of Science

  • On May 15, 1501, the Venetian Ottaviano Petrucci founded the first modern-style music publishing house, producing the first music book made of movable type.
  • On May 15, 1618, Johannes Kepler discovered the law of harmonic, published in his five-volume work Harmonices Mundi (Harmony of Worlds, 1619).
  • On May 15, 1718, a "Defense" rapid-fire weapon was patented by James Puckle, a London barrister.
  • May 15, 1859 - French physicist Pierre Curie was born.
  • On May 15, 1935, at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia, Albert Einstein was awarded the Benjamin Franklin Medal for his outstanding fundamental contribution to theoretical physics, particularly the theory of relativity.
  • On May 15, 1935, the Moscow metro opened and carried an estimated 285.000 people that day. The underground spaces still contain chandeliers, marbles, mosaics, murals and heroic statues.
  • On May 15, 1923, Listerine was registered as a trademark. Modern Listerine is a mouthwash, but the original amber-colored product was a disinfectant for surgical procedures and dates back to its formulation in 1879 by Dr Joseph Lawrence and Jordan Wheat Lambert.
  • May 15, 1951 - American theoretical physicist Frank Wilczek, winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics, was born.
  • May 15, 2008 - Willis Eugene Lamb, American physicist and Nobel Prize winner in Physics, dies.
  • May 15, 2016 - André Brahic, a French astrophysicist, died.
  • May 15, 2019 - American physicist Charles Kittel dies.

Events

  • 1648 – The Treaty of Westphalia is signed, ending the Thirty Years' War.
  • 1756 – The Seven Years' War, also known as the Franco-Indian war, begins when Great Britain declares war on the Kingdom of France in the struggle for dominance in North America.
  • 1856 – Anadolu Feneri and Rumeli Lighthouse were built and operated by the French.
  • 1873 – Darüşşafaka High School was established.
  • 1919 – Mustafa Kemal, in Yıldız Palace Küçük Mabeyn Mansion, Sultan VI. He met with Mehmed Vahideddin.
  • 1919 – The Greeks, with the support of the Allies, occupied İzmir. Journalist Hasan Tahsin and Head of Military Service Colonel Süleyman Fethi were killed by Greek soldiers and became the first martyrs of the Turkish War of Independence.
  • 1924 – Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi students opened their first painting exhibition in Istanbul.
  • 1928 – The cartoon, in which the Mickey Mouse character, created by Walt Disney, appears for the first time. plane crazy entered the show.
  • 1932 - The first to publish Kurdish with the Latin alphabet hawar magazine began its publication life.
  • 1933 – Russian novelist Maxim Gorky, while crossing from Italy to Russia, came to Istanbul and visited the Suleymaniye Mosque and some museums.
  • 1935 – The Moscow metro, the construction of which was started by Josef Stalin in 1931 and one of the largest metros in the world, was opened.
  • 1940 – McDonald's was founded in America.
  • 1958 - The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 3 satellite.
  • 1960 - The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 4 satellite.
  • 1963 – American astronaut Gordon Cooper was launched into space with the capsule named 'Mercury-Atlas 8' to perform the longest space flight ever made. Cooper spent 34 hours and 19 minutes in space.
  • 1966 – In Washington, DC, 8000 people protested the Vietnam War around the White House for two hours.
  • 1969 – With the adoption of the constitutional amendment in the Parliament, the former Democrat Party members were given the opportunity to return their political rights.
  • 1972 – The island of Okinawa, which had been under US occupation since 1945, was given back to the administration of Japan.
  • 1980 – The Process Leading to the 12 September 1980 Coup in Turkey (1979 - 12 September 1980): At the end of the mawlid prayer for Regaip Kandili, which was read in a mosque in Istanbul and broadcast live on television, Atatürk's name was mentioned, and a group hooted. "Damn!" he shouted. After the incident, Chief of General Staff Kenan Evren and the commanders held a meeting.
  • 1984 – 1256 intellectuals submitted a petition titled “Observations and requests regarding the democratic order in Turkey” to President Kenan Evren. A lawsuit was filed against the initiative known as the Intellectuals Petition.
  • 1988 – After more than 8 years of fighting, the Soviet Red Army begins to withdraw from Afghanistan.
  • 1990 - by Vincent Van Gogh Dr. Portrait of Gachet The painting was sold for 82,5 million dollars, the highest price ever paid for a painting.
  • 1991 - Edith Cresson becomes France's first female Prime Minister.
  • 1995 – In Germany, Cemalettin Kaplan, who campaigned against Turkey and Atatürk, declared himself caliph and was called the 'Black Voice' in Turkey, died.
  • 1996 - Lookout newspaper began publication.
  • 1997 – The Peace Prize of the German Book Publishers Association was given to Yaşar Kemal.
  • 2004 – In the 49th Eurovision Song Contest held in Istanbul, Ruslana brought Ukraine the first place.
  • 2011 – In the 56th Eurovision Song Contest held in Düsseldorf, the duo of Eldar Kasımov and Nigar Camal brought Azerbaijan the first place.

Births

  • 1567 – Claudio Monteverdi, Italian composer (d. 1643)
  • 1633 – Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, French architect (d. 1707)
  • 1848 - Viktor Vasnetsov, Russian painter (d. 1926)
  • 1859 – Pierre Curie, French physicist (d. 1906)
  • 1890 – Katherine Anne Porter, American short story writer (d. 1980)
  • 1891 – Mikhail Bulgakov, Russian novelist (d. 1940)
  • 1900 – Reşit Rahmeti Arat, Turkish academic and linguist (d. 1964)
  • 1903 – Maria Reiche, German mathematician and archaeologist (d. 1998)
  • 1904 – Sadi Irmak, Turkish medical doctor and politician (former Prime Minister of Turkey) (d. 1990)
  • 1909 – James Mason, American actor (d. 1984)
  • 1911 – Max Frisch, Swiss author and architect (d. 1991)
  • 1915 – Paul A. Samuelson, American economist and 1970 Nobel Prize winner in Economics (d. 2009)
  • 1923 – Richard Avedon, American photographer (d. 2004)
  • 1923 – Angel Mojsovski, Macedonian communist activist, soldier of the Yugoslav Front, recipient of the Order of the People's Hero (d. 2001)
  • 1925 – Dündar Taşer, Turkish soldier, May 27 coup d'état and member of the National Unity Committee (d. 1972)
  • 1926 – Anthony Shaffer, English playwright, novelist, and screenwriter (d. 2001)
  • 1926 – Peter Shaffer, English playwright and screenwriter (d. 2016)
  • 1926 – Sabahattin Zaim, Turkish economist and academic (d. 2007)
  • 1932 – Turgay Şeren, Turkish football player and coach (d. 2016)
  • 1933 – Kemal İnci, Turkish film actor, director and screenwriter
  • 1934 – Enver Asfandiyarov, Soviet Russian/Bashkir scientist, historian, professor (d. 2014)
  • 1935 – Sezgin Burak, Turkish cartoonist and comics artist (d. 1978)
  • 1936 – Ralph Steadman, American writer
  • 1937 - Madeleine Albright, 64th US Secretary of State
  • 1937 – Trini López, American singer, guitarist, and actor (d. 2020)
  • 1938 – Mireille Darc, French model and actress (d. 2017)
  • 1939 – Gilberto Rincón Gallardo, Mexican politician (d. 2008)
  • 1940 – Roger Ailes, American politician (d. 2017)
  • 1940 – Cetin Dogan, Turkish soldier
  • 1941 – Özdemir Sabancı, Turkish businessman (d. 1996)
  • 1942 – Barnabas Sibusiso Dlamini, Esvatinian politician (d. 2018)
  • 1944 – Ulrich Beck, German sociologist, physician, and publisher (d. 2015)
  • 1946 – Serdar Gökhan, Turkish actor
  • 1947 – Paulo de Carvalho, Portuguese singer-songwriter
  • 1947 – Aydan Siyavuş, Turkish basketball player and basketball coach (d. 1998)
  • 1947 – Niall Duthie, Scottish novelist
  • 1948 – Brian Eno, British composer, producer, keyboardist and singer
  • 1949 – Ersan Erdura, Turkish singer and actor
  • 1951 – Frank Wilczek, American theoretical physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics
  • 1952 – Chazz Palminteri, Italian-American actor
  • 1953 – Mike Oldfield, English singer and composer
  • 1954 – Eric Gerets, Belgian football player and manager
  • 1955 – Mohammed Al-Brahmi, Tunisian dissident, politician (d. 2013)
  • 1955 – Claudia Roth, German politician
  • 1958 – Berhan Şimşek, Turkish film actor, director and politician
  • 1959 – Andrew Eldritch, English vocalist
  • 1959 – Ronald Pofalla, German politician
  • 1961 Katrin Cartlidge, English actress (d. 2002)
  • 1961 – Melle Mel, American hip hop recording artist
  • 1965 – Irina Kirillova, Croatian national volleyball player of Russian origin
  • 1965 – Raí, Brazilian former football player
  • 1967 – Simen Agdestein, Norwegian chess grandmaster and former national football player
  • 1967 - Madhuri Dixit, Indian actress
  • 1967 – Andrea Jürgens, German musician and singer (d. 2017)
  • 1970 – Frank de Boer, former Dutch national football player
  • 1970 – Ronald de Boer, Dutch football player
  • 1971 – Zubeyir Beye, Tunisian former football player
  • 1972 – Ulrike C. Tscharre, German actress
  • 1975 – Peter Iwers, Swedish bass guitarist (In Flames)
  • 1976 – Jacek Krzynówek, Polish national football player
  • 1979 – Adolfo Bautista, Mexican football player
  • 1981 – Patrice Evra, French former football player
  • 1981 – Renato Dirnei Florêncio, Brazilian midfielder
  • 1982 – Segundo Castillo, Ecuadorian national football player
  • 1982 – Veronica Campbell, Jamaican sprinter
  • 1982 – Jessica Sutta, American singer and composer
  • 1983 – Sibel Mirkelam, Turkish singer
  • 1983 – Josh Simpson, Canadian former football player
  • 1985 – Carl Medjani, Algerian football player
  • 1987 – Doruk Çetin, Turkish director, photographer and producer
  • 1987 – Ersan İlyasova, Turkish national basketball player
  • 1987 – Kevin Constant, Guinean football player
  • 1987 – Thaisa Daher De Menezes, Brazilian volleyball player
  • 1987 – Andy Murray, Scottish tennis player
  • 1989 – James Holland, Australian national football player
  • 1989 – Sunny, South Korea-based American singer, actress
  • 1996 – Jasmine Lucilla Elizabeth Jennifer van den Bogaerde, with her stage name Birdy, British musician
  • 1997 – Ousmane Dembélé, French football player

Deaths

  • 392 – II. Valentinian was emperor of Rome from 375-392.
  • 884 – Marinus I, Pope
  • 1036 – Go-Ichijō, 68th emperor of Japan in the traditional succession order (b. 1008)
  • 1174 – Nureddin Mahmud Zengi, Aleppo Atabe of the Great Seljuks (b. 1118)
  • 1634 – Hendrick Avercamp, Dutch painter (b. 1585)
  • 1782 – Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Portuguese statesman (b. 1699)
  • 1850 – Nükhetseza Hanım, ninth wife of Abdülmecid (b. 1827)
  • 1886 – Emily Dickinson, American poet (b. 1830)
  • 1914 – Baha Tevfik, Ottoman intellectual and writer (b. 1884)
  • 1919 – Hasan Tahsin, Turkish journalist (who shot the first bullet in the occupation of Izmir) (b. 1888)
  • 1919 – Süleyman Fethi Bey, Turkish soldier (Ottoman officer killed by 22 bayonet blows during the occupation of İzmir) (b. 1877)
  • 1929 – Rebeca Matte Bello, Chilean sculptor (b. 1875)
  • 1935 – Kazimir Malevich, Russian painter and art theorist (b. 1879)
  • 1941 – Ulrich Grauert, German Luftwaffe general (b. 1889)
  • 1991 – İhsan Yüce, Turkish theater and cinema artist (b. 1929)
  • 1994 – Gilbert Roland, Mexican-American actor (b. 1905)
  • 1997 – Turhan Oğuzbaş, Turkish poet (b. 1933)
  • 1998 – Naim Talu, Turkish bureaucrat, politician and former Prime Minister of Turkey (b. 1919)
  • 2003 – June Carter Cash, American musician (b. 1929)
  • 2008 – Willis Eugene Lamb, American physicist and Nobel Prize laureate in Physics (b. 1913)
  • 2009 – Susanna Agnelli, Italian politician (b. 1922)
  • 2011 – Samuel Wanjiru, Kenyan athlete (b. 1986)
  • 2012 – Carlos Fuentes Macías, Mexican writer (b. 1928)
  • 2012 – Zekeriya Muhiddin, Egyptian soldier and statesman (b. 1918)
  • 2013 – Henrique Rosa, Former Prime Minister of Guinea-Bissau (b. 1946)
  • 2014 – Jean Luc Dehaene, 46th Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Belgium (b. 1940)
  • 2015 – Bob Hopkins, American former basketball player and head coach (b. 1934)
  • 2016 – İsmail Hakkı Akansel, Turkish soldier, former mayor of Istanbul Municipality (b. 1924)
  • 2016 – Oya Aydoğan, Turkish film actress (b. 1957)
  • 2016 – Erika Berger, German television presenter and author (b. 1939)
  • 2016 – André Brahic, French astrophysicist (b. 1942)
  • 2017 - Karl-Otto Apel, German philosopher and professor. (b. 1922)
  • 2017 – Herbert Richard Axelrod, Russian-American tropical fish expert, author, publisher, and entrepreneur of pet books (b. 1927)
  • 2017 – Nasser Giveçi, Iranian wrestler (b. 1932)
  • 2017 – Chu Ke-liang, Taiwanese comedian, actor, TV host, and singer (b. 1946)
  • 2017 – Subrahmanyan Ramaswamy, Indian politician and bureaucrat (b. 1937)
  • 2017 – Oleg Vidov, Soviet Russian-American actor, film producer, director, and voice actor (b. 1943)
  • 2019 – Robert LeRoy Diamond, American actor and lawyer (b. 1943)
  • 2019 – Ikuo Kamei, Japanese politician (b. 1933)
  • 2019 – Charles Kittel, American physicist (b. 1916)
  • 2019 – Eduardo Alejandro Roca, Argentine lawyer, academic and diplomat (b. 1921)
  • 2020 – Claes Gustaf Borgström, Swedish lawyer and politician (b. 1944)
  • 2020 – Ezio Bosso, Italian composer, conductor and classical musician (b. 1971)
  • 2020 – Denny DeMarchi, Canadian multi-instrumentalist rock musician and songwriter (b. 1962)
  • 2020 – Sergio Denis, Argentine pop singer, songwriter, musician, composer and actor (b. 1949)
  • 2020 – Franco Nenci, Italian middleweight boxer (b. 1935)
  • 2020 – Phil May, English singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1944)
  • 2020 – Henrik Pontén, Swedish lawyer (b. 1965)
  • 2020 – Olga Savary, Brazilian writer, poet and literary critic (b. 1933)
  • 2020 – Frederick Charles “Fred” Willard, American comedian and actor (b. 1933)

Holidays and special occasions

  • International Family Day
  • Conscientious Objection Day
  • Aviation Martyrs' Day

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