Today in the History of Science: 510.000.000 Degrees Celsius Plasma Was Produced in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

tokamak
tokamak

May 27 is the 147st day of the year (148nd in leap years) according to the Gregorian calendar. The number of days left until the end of the year is 218.

Today in the History of Science

  • May 27, 1988 - German physicist Ernst Ruska dies.
  • May 27, 1914 - British physicist and chemist Joseph Wilson Swan dies.
  • May 27, 1959 - Canadian physicist Donna Strickland was born.
  • On May 27, 1994, the highest temperature produced in a laboratory at the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), operated at Princeton University's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, was 510 million degrees Celsius plasma temperature.

Events

  • 1703 - Russian Tsar Peter I founded the city of Saint-Peterburg, known as Petrograd during the Russian Civil War, and Leningrad during the Soviet Union.
  • 1905 - Battle of Tsushima begins. It ended the next day with the Japanese Navy nearly destroying the Russian Navy. This battle was the first modern naval battle in world history.
  • 1907 - A plague epidemic broke out in San Francisco, California.
  • 1915 – The Law of Relocation and Settlement was accepted by the Ottoman Government.
  • 1935 – Weekend in Turkey was changed from Friday to Sunday.
  • 1940 – Le Paradis massacre: Of the 99 soldiers of the Royal Norfolk Detachment surrounded by the Germans, only 2 survive.
  • 1941 – The German battleship Bismarck is sunk by the British Royal Navy.
  • 1944 – The first Republic gold was minted in Latin letters.
  • 1953 – The Treaty of the European Defense Union is signed in Paris between Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany.
  • 1957 – In the World Wrestling Championship held in Istanbul, the Turkish National Wrestling Team became the world champion in freestyle with four championships.
  • 1958 - The American F-4 Phantom II multirole fighter-bomber made its maiden flight.
  • 1960 – 27 May Coup: The Turkish Armed Forces seized power. The National Unity Committee undertook the administration of the country on behalf of the Armed Forces. General Cemal Gürsel was appointed head of the National Unity Committee. The National Unity Committee first dissolved the Turkish Grand National Assembly and the Government and banned all kinds of political activities.
  • 1960 – Former Interior Minister Namık Gedik, who was detained after the Turkish Armed Forces seized power, committed suicide. 150 people detained on the same day were brought to Yassıada.
  • 1961 – The Constitution was adopted with the votes of 262 out of 260 voting members in the Constituent Assembly.
  • 1962 – Çekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (ÇNAEM) was opened.
  • 1980 – The Process Leading to the 12 September 1980 Coup in Turkey (1979 - 12 September 1980): Deputy Chairman of the Nationalist Movement Party Gün Sazak was assassinated in front of his house in Ankara.
  • 1983 – The abortion ban was lifted in Turkey. President Kenan Evren gave women the right to abortion.
  • 1992 – Iğdır and Ardahan became provinces.
  • 1994 – Soviet writer Alexander Solzhenitsyn, who had been in exile in the USA for 20 years, returned to his country.
  • 1995 – A group of women sat in front of Istanbul Galatasaray High School at 12:00 on Saturday, demanding that those who disappeared in custody be found and those responsible should be found and prosecuted. Human rights defenders, later known as Saturday Mothers, met at the same place every Saturday at 12:00 for four years.
  • 1999 – The United Nations Tribunal for War Criminals accused Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic of being responsible for the atrocities in Kosovo and committing genocide against ethnic Albanians.
  • 2007 – The DYP, under the chairmanship of Mehmet Ağar, took the name of the former Democrat Party.

Births

  • 1332 - Ibn Khaldun, Arab philosopher and historian (d. 1406)
  • 1509 – Pasquale Cicogna, 88th Duke of the Republic of Venice (d. 1595)
  • 1756 – Maximilian Joseph I, first Ruler of the Kingdom of Bavaria (d. 1825)
  • 1794 – Cornelius Vanderbilt, American entrepreneur (d. 1877)
  • 1799 – Jacques Fromental Halévy, French composer (d. 1862)
  • 1818 – Franciscus Cornelis Donders, Dutch physician (d. 1889)
  • 1837 – Wild Bill Hickok, American gunslinger, tracker, and lawman (d. 1876)
  • 1877 – Isadora Duncan, American dancer (d. 1927)
  • 1880 – Joseph Grew, American diplomat (d. 1965)
  • 1882 – Tevfik Sağlam, Turkish scientist and military physician (one of the Rectors of Istanbul University and the President of the Tuberculosis Association) (d. 1963)
  • 1884 – Max Brod, German writer, composer and journalist (d. 1968)
  • 1894 – Dashiell Hammett, American crime writer (d. 1961)
  • 1907 – Rachel Carson, American author (d. 1964)
  • 1908 – Mazhar Şevket İpşiroğlu, Turkish art historian (d. 1985)
  • 1911 – Teddy Kollek, Israeli politician (d. 2007)
  • Vincent Price, American actor (d. 1993)
  • 1912 – John Cheever, American author (d. 1982)
  • 1915 – Herman Wouk, Jewish-American novelist and Pulitzer Prize winner
  • 1922 – Christopher Lee, English actor (d. 2015)
  • 1923 – Henry Kissinger, Jewish-American diplomat, political scientist, and politician
  • 1928 – Ayfer Feray, Turkish cinema and theater artist (d. 1994)
  • 1930 – Güngör Dilmen, Turkish playwright and dramaturge (d. 2012)
  • 1930 – John Barth, American novelist and short story writer
  • 1934 – Uwe Friedrichsen, German film and television actor (d. 2016)
  • 1937 – Allan Carr, American film producer (d. 1999)
  • 1939 – Don Williams, American country singer-songwriter (d. 2017)
  • 1943 – Cilla Black, English singer and television star (d. 2015)
  • 1944 Alain Souchon, French singer-songwriter, actor
  • 1950 - Dee Dee Bridgewater is an American Jazz artist.
  • 1953 – Emine Şenlikoğlu, Turkish researcher and writer
  • 1956 – Giuseppe Tornatore, Italian screenwriter and director
  • 1957 – Siouxsie Sioux, English singer, songwriter, musician and producer
  • 1959 – Donna Strickland, Canadian physicist
  • 1960 – Metin Tokat, Turkish football referee
  • 1960 – Önder Paker, Turkish theater director and playwright
  • 1962 – Zeynep Tunisian, Turkish fashion designer and journalist
  • 1963 – Sezgin Tanrıkulu, Turkish lawyer and politician
  • 1967 – Paul Gascoigne, English football player
  • 1968 – Harun Erdenay, Turkish basketball player
  • 1969 – Valérie Barlois, French fencer
  • 1970 – Joseph Fiennes, English actor
  • 1971 - Paul Bettany, English actor
  • 1971 – Lisa Lopes, American singer (d. 2002)
  • 1972 – Sibyl Buck, American musician and model
  • 1973 – Yorgos Lanthimos, Greek film director, screenwriter
  • 1973 – Jack McBrayer, American actor and comedian
  • 1974 – Paolo Briguglia, Italian actor
  • Gürkan Uygun, Turkish actor
  • 1975 – André 3000, American rapper and producer
  • Jadakiss, American rapper
  • Baris Bagci, Turkish actor
  • Jamie Oliver, British chef, television presenter, author and restaurateur
  • 1976 – Jiří Štajner, Czech national football player
  • 1978 – Jacques Abardonado, French former football player
  • 1979 – Mile Sterjovski, Australian national football player
  • 1981 – Johan Elmander, Swedish football player
  • 1981 – Özgür Çevik, Turkish actress and singer
  • 1982 - Natalya Neidhart, Canadian professional wrestler
  • 1983 – Lucenzo, French singer
  • 1983 – Maxim Tsigalko, Belarusian football player
  • 1987 – Bora Hun Paçun, Turkish basketball player
  • 1988 – Tobias Reichmann, German handball player
  • 1989 – Nina Radojčić, Serbian singer-songwriter
  • 1990 – Samuel Armenteros, Cuban-Swedish football player
  • 1990 – Nadine Beiler, Austrian Hip hop and Pop singer
  • 1990 – Chris Colfer, American actor and singer
  • 1990 – Jonas Hector, German international football player
  • 1991 – Mário Rui, Italian football player
  • 1994 – Maximilian Arnold, German national football player
  • 1994 – João Cancelo, Portuguese national football player
  • 1995 – Marius Wolf, German football player

Deaths

  • 366 – Procopius, native of Cilicia who declared his empire against Valentinian I, member of the Constantinian dynasty (b. 326)
  • 927 – Simeon I, tsar of the First Bulgarian Empire, reigning from 893-927. son of Boris I (b. 864)
  • 1564 – Jean Calvin, French religious reformer and founder of Calvinism (b.1509)
  • 1690 – Giovanni Legrenzi, Italian composer and organist (b. 1626)
  • 1762 – Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten, German philosopher (b. 1714)
  • 1797 – François-Noël Babeuf, French writer (b. 1760)
  • 1831 – Jedediah Smith, American hunter, tracker, fur trader, and explorer (b. 1799)
  • 1840 – Niccolo Paganini, Italian violin virtuoso and composer (b. 1782)
  • 1910 – Robert Koch, German physician and Nobel Prize laureate in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1843)
  • 1914 – Joseph Wilson Swan, English physicist and chemist (b. 1828)
  • 1935 – Ahmet Cevdet Oran, Turkish publisher, writer and journalist (b. 1862)
  • 1939 – Joseph Roth, Austrian novelist (b. 1894)
  • 1941 – Ernst Lindemann, German soldier (b. 1894)
  • 1942 – Muhammed Hamdi Yazır, Turkish clergyman, translator, calligrapher and commentator (b. 1878)
  • 1947 – Evans Carlson, American Corps commander (b. 1896)
  • 1949 – Robert Ripley, American cartoonist (b. 1890)
  • 1950 – Vilmos Tkálecz, Hungarian-Slovenian school principal and politician (b. 1894)
  • 1953 – Otto Meissner, head of the Office of the President of Germany (b. 1880)
  • 1956 – Samed Vurgun, Azerbaijani poet (b. 1906)
  • 1960 – Namık Gedik, Turkish politician (b. 1911)
  • 1964 – Jawaharlal Nehru, first Prime Minister of India (b. 1889)
  • 1969 – Jeffrey Hunter, American actor and producer (1926)
  • 1980 – Gün Sazak, Turkish politician and Minister of Customs and Monopoly (b. 1932)
  • 1987 – John Howard Northrop, American chemist and Nobel Prize laureate in Chemistry (b. 1891)
  • 1988 – Ernst Ruska, German physicist (b. 1906)
  • 1989 – Sabite Tur Gülerman, Turkish singer (b. 1927)
  • 1991 – Temel Cingöz, Turkish soldier (assassinated) (b. 1941)
  • 1996 – Ziya Kayla, Turkish bureaucrat (b. 1912)
  • 2000 – Maurice Richard, Canadian ice hockey player and coach (b. 1921)
  • 2003 – Luciano Berio, Italian avant-garde composer, conductor, theorist, and teacher (b. 1925)
  • 2004 – Umberto Agnelli, Italian entrepreneur, politician and President of Fiat (b. 1934)
  • 2006 – Mübeccel Vardar, Turkish theater and film actress (b. 1960)
  • 2009 – Clive Granger, Welsh economist and Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1934)
  • 2010 – Talip Özkan, Turkish Folk Music artist (b. 1939)
  • 2011 – Jeff Conaway, American actor (b. 1950)
  • 2011 – Margo Dydek, Polish basketball player (b. 1974)
  • 2012 – Johnny Tapia, Mexican-American boxer (b. 1967)
  • 2013 – Nazmiye Demirel, wife of 9th President Süleyman Demirel (b. 1928)
  • 2013 – Bill Pertwee, English comedian, writer and actor (b. 1926)
  • 2014 – Adnan Varince, Turkish still life painter (b. 1918)
  • 2014 – Massimo Vignelli, Italian designer (b. 1931)
  • 2017 – Gregg Allmann, American gospel-rock musician (b. 1947)
  • 2017 – Kiran Ashar, Indian cricketer (b. 1947)
  • 2017 – Hyun Hong-choo, South Korean lawyer, politician, and diplomat (b. 1940)
  • 2017 – Ludwig Preis, German football manager and coach (b. 1971)
  • 2018 – John DiFronzo, American crime syndicate (mafia) leader (b. 1928)
  • 2018 – Gardner Dozois, American science fiction writer and editor (b. 1947)
  • 2018 – Andres Gandarias, Spanish professional long distance cyclist (b. 1943)
  • 2018 – Ali Lutfi Mahmud, Egyptian politician (b. 1935)
  • 2018 – Arda Öziri, Turkish TV series and film actor (b. 1978)
  • 2019 – Bill Buckner, American professional baseball player (b. 1949)
  • 2019 – Gabriel Diniz, Brazilian singer and composer (b. 1990)
  • 2019 – Tony Horwitz, American journalist and writer (b. 1958)
  • 2020 – Larry Kramer, American playwright; screenwriter, novelist (b. 1935)
  • 2020 – Liesbeth Migchelsen, Dutch women's international football player and coach (b. 1971)
  • 2020 – Nicholas Rinaldi, American poet and author (b. 1934)
  • 2021 – Carla Fracci, Italian ballerina and actress (b. 1936)
  • 2021 – Robert Hogan, American actor (b. 1933)
  • 2021 – Lorina Kamburova, Bulgarian actress (b. 1991)
  • 2021 – Nelson Sargento, Brazilian samba musician, singer and composer (b. 1924)
  • 2021 – Poul Schlüter, Danish politician (b. 1929)

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