What is Photon?


Photon is an electromagnetic force that can be produced in different ways. All photon generation pathways use the same mechanism within the atom. These mechanisms are due to the energizing of electrons rotating in the atomic nucleus.
Electrons ensure that nuclei are in a circle in a fixed orbit. This situation can be shown as an example of satellites orbiting the Earth. Imagine holding two flashlights in a dark place. Turn on the lanterns so that their lights cross each other. Nothing strange happens here. Because the photons that make up the light do not interact.

Does a Photon Have Mass?

of photons they normally do not have a mass. It has the ability to move at a speed of 300.000 km / h per second. However, scientists doing research on the subject have discovered that the photons that are bound only obtain a part of their electron mass.

Although the photon was discovered in the mid-1900s, imaging of photon energy particles only took place in 2007. This year, French physicists accomplished a very important job, capturing the image of the photon. While succeeding in this event, French physicists started from a word of Albert Einstein and carried out their experiments close to this word. Albert Einstein said that when he put a photon in a box and weighed it about the photons he named, the photon was in that box. In the light of this discourse, French scientists carried out this experiment by using boxes covered with superconducting mirrors.

One of the most debated topics in the 19th century was the question of whether light is a particle or a wave. After James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory and Hertz's experiments, light began to be accepted as a wave. But some experiments did not agree with the observation that light is a wave. Rayleigh and Jeans' theory of blackbody radiation was one of the places where this peaked. Using the wave approach, Rayleigh and Jeans tried to calculate how much radiation an object with a certain temperature would radiate at which wavelength. Their results were in agreement with experiments at longer wavelengths, but diverged greatly at lower wavelengths. Their theory was that as the wavelength gets smaller, the radiation emitted goes to infinity (hence the term ultraviolet catastrophe). Later, Max Planck realized that this problem could be circumvented if light was thought of as packets of energy rather than waves (which earned Max Planck the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics). Later, the Compton scattering event explained by Arthur Compton and the Photoelectric event explained by Albert Einstein revealed the particle structure of light. But other experiments, such as interference and diffraction experiments, can only be explained if light is assumed to be a wave. It is currently accepted that light has a dual nature and exhibits both particle and wave properties (later experiments have shown that all matter is like this).
Electromagnetic waves are not constantly in waves. Therefore, photons are in quantum form. Electromagnetic waves are made up of discrete particles called photons. The term photon was discovered in the late 1800s by an experiment called photoelectricity.

The properties of photons are as follows;

• No electrical charges
• Their mass is zero.
• Photons are in a stable structure.
• They move at the speed of light in space.
They have energies and momentum depending on their frequency. They interact with other particles. With these properties, it resembles an electron.
They can be obtained or destroyed by different natural processes.
Photons can interact with matter. Therefore, it behaves like a particle. It can also happen that the photon energy is absorbed by the materials most of the time. In such a situation, excess energies are dispersed to the environment as heat.

Isaac Newton was the first to mention that light is made up of particles. Later, it was thought that light consisted of waves. As a result of Max Planck's experiments, it was revealed that light behaves like a particle. Light is not constantly moving in waves, but rather like energy packets. Einstein and Planck referred to these energy packets as quanta of light or photons.
It has been discovered that photons act as if they were particles. According to the theory of relativity, in order for particles to move at the speed of light, their masses must be close to zero. This shows that light energy has only kinetic energy. That is, it has no energy dependent on mass. This is how Einstein explained the concept of photoelectricity, which had not been explained until then.
It is known that the rest mass of the photon is zero. It has the ability to move at the speed of light. It has the property of entering interactions as particles and propagating as waves. It is possible to use the equations E=hxf, p=h/l, E=pc. Its mass is zero. However, like other particles, it has the ability to be affected by gravity.
E= means amount of energy.
h= h= 6.6 X 1034 Js= is called Planck's constant.
f = means frequency.
Light has wave properties. It has the property of entering the interactions in the form of particles and propagating as waves.
The momentum of a particle traveling at the speed of light is calculated from the formula P=mxc.
Energy of a particle E= E= mxc2 calculated from the relation.
The energy of a photon is calculated from the formula E= hx (c /λ ).

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