Graphene is the name given to a single-layer structure in which carbon atoms are arranged in a hexagonal shape. It can be considered as the building block of graphite. The reason why it is called "miracle material" is because it has unique properties. Although it is only one atom thick, it has a structure that is 200 times stronger than steel. When integrated into the industry, it has the potential to be a touchstone that will change the world we live in.
Who Invented Graphene?
Graphene was obtained in 2004 by exfoliating graphite with the aid of a tape. In 2010, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics as the inventors of graphene. Graphene can be used with many materials and adapted to many applications by modifying its properties. Many academics and scientists from all over the world are trying to adapt graphene for new uses and to find new production methods for graphene.
Crystal Structure of Graphene
Theoretically, graphene is not a new object. However, prior to the discovery of graphene, these were always a debate over whether carbon could exist in a two-dimensional (2D) form. In fact, according to theoretical predictions, it was widely accepted that no individual 2D crystal was stable at certain temperatures at which layers or macromolecules of such material could not grow in a crystalline structure. Therefore, it is rather strange that graphene appears frequently in our daily lives, but no one had found it until 2004. Even more interestingly, unlike many other scientific discoveries, the first observation of graphene is quite dramatic.
Where Graphene Is Used
Since it is difficult to integrate graphene into different pure products, in order to achieve this, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide and its processed derivatives such as functionalized and reduced graphene oxide are studied in industrial products or graphene is subjected to various modification processes depending on the material to which it will be applied. Graphene oxide contains oxygen-based functional groups in its structure. It behaves as a semiconductor or insulating material according to the degree of oxidation. The fact that its conductivity can be manipulated to this extent makes graphene oxide prominent in many fields such as biomedicine, coating, energy storage, electronic devices, bio-sensors.