Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî (Hācī Bektāş-ı Vālī; date of birth 1209, Nishapur - date of death 1271, Nevşehir); Mystic, sayyid, sufi poet and Islamic philosopher.
Life and personality
He was the most active practitioner of the Yesevî sect in Anatolia, founded by Hoca Ahmed Yesevi, a student of Yusuf Hemedani, one of the prominent representatives of Khorasan Melameti, and made important contributions to the Islamization process of 13th century Anatolia and got his name among the figures known as "Horasan Erenleri", 16 In the 14th century, under the leadership of Balım Sultan, the name father of the Bektashi order, Kalenderî / Haydarî sheikh, which was institutionalized by taking the understanding of ibahism, trinity (trinity), reincarnation and khalul under the influence of the Hurufî movement that spread in Azerbaijan and Anatolia in the 15th and XNUMXth centuries, islam mystic.
Lokman had received his first education from Parende and followed the teachings of Hoca Ahmed Yesevi (1103-1165). Therefore, he is accepted as the caliph of Yesevi. After he came to Anatolia, he became known in a short time and raised valuable students. Hacı Bektâş-ı Veli made important contributions to the development of the social structure in Anatolia during the establishment period of the Ottoman State, with the “Ahi Organization” to which he was affiliated.
Hacı Bektâş-ı Veli, who spent most of his life in Sulucakarahöyük (Hacıbektaş), completed his life here. His tomb is located in Hacıbektaş district of Nevşehir province.
The identity of Hacı Bektâş-ı Veli
Main articles: Hoca Ahmed Yesevî, Seyyid Ebû'l Vefâ Tâcû'l-Ârifîn, Ebû'l-Bekâ Baba Ilyâs, Kutb'ûd-Dîn Haydar and Baba İshâk Kefersudî Meşhur Velâyet-Nâme, who carries the title sect of Shiism, Câ'fer-i He ties it to Hodja Ahmed Yesevi through “Lokman Perende” wearing the cardigan brought by Beyazid Bistâmî from Sâdık. According to the writers who specialize on Velâyet-Nâme, Hacı Bektâş's tarikât sequence was first to Kutb'ûd-Dîn Haydar, from that to Lokman Serahsî, and from there to Hoca through Şücâ'ed-Dîn Ebû'l Bekâ Baba İlyas el-Horasanî. It is connected to Ahmed Yesevi. In the history of Âşık Pasha, "Hacı Bektâş" came to Sivas with his brother named "Menteş" from Khorasan and became followers of Baba İlyas Horasanî. After this affiliation, Hacı Bektâş first came to Kayseri and then to Kırşehri and then settled in Karacahöy. According to this, it is understood that the narration that he was one of the followers of Hodja Ahmed Yesevi is not true.
The period and personality of Hacı Bektâş
According to Tezkire-i Eflâkî, “Hacı Bektâş” was a caliph of Erin, which they call “Father Messenger” in Rum. Bektâş sent his disciple Baba İshâk Kefersudî to Konya to ask some questions to Mevlânâ Celâl'ed-Dîn-i Rîmî, who is revered in the world of Sufism with his mesnevi and ghazals in that century. When Sheikh İshâk reached Mevlana in Konya, he found him busy with dhikr'üs-sema. Mevlânâ, on the other hand, answered the questions by asking other questions in the form of a quatrain, without allowing him to ask the questions of Sheikh İshak more than he had known before. Sheikh Ishak, considering himself to have received the answer to the purpose in the pronouns of the question and verses, returned and transferred the situation to Hacı Bektâş. It is understood that Hacı Bektâş, who was understood to have lived during the reign of Gıyas'ed-Dîn Key-Hüsrev-i Sâni, the son of Sultan Âlâ'ed-Dîn Key-Kûbâd-ı Evvel, was one of the Shiite geniuses who had influence in Anatolia. Among the Seljuk Sultans, there is no Shiite other than Süleyman. According to another rumor, these “Shiite Movements” were not reserved for Hacı Bektâş's personality but those who were subordinate to him. According to Şekayık, there were many dervishes who shared the title of "Melâhide-i Bâtıniyye" among Hacı Bektâş's other disciples such as Şeyh İshâk.
Ahi Evran, who was the head of Âhiler and lived in Kırşehir, also had friendships with Hacı Bektâş Veli. The Âhis in Sivas had a very large organization and had close relations with the Babâîs. “Hi Emîr Ahmed Bayburdî” was appointed as the chairman of the Âhiler in Bayburt. The work named Velâyet-name-i Hacı Bektâş Velî describes the frequent visits of Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî to Kırşehir and his conversations with Ahi Evran.
Caliphs trained by Hacı Bektâş
After Hacı Bektâş migrated to Anatolia from Khorasan, he was busy publishing the "Twelve Imamists of Khorasan Melamatism" in Suluca Karahüyük for thirty-six years, and during this period, among them Cemal Seyyid, Sarı İsmâil, his branch was open. Hâcim Sultan, Baba Resul, Birap Sultan, Recep Seyyid Sarı Kadı, Ali Baba, Burak Baba, Yahya Pasha, Sultan Bahâ'ed-Dîn, Atlaspuş, and Dost Hüda Hazreti Sâmet raised exactly thirty-six thousand caliphs. As soon as he felt his death approaching, he sent each of them to a country. Velâyet-Nâme describes the states of some of them.
Although the broadcasting activities of the Batinism, which originated from the Khorasan Melamethism of Hacı Bektâş, have undeniably survived, the main center of the organization in this place was Şücâ'ed-Dîn Ebû'l Bekâ Baba İlyas el-Horasanî. Although Eflâkî shows Father Resul as the sheikh of Hacı Bektâş, Velâyet-Nâme claims the opposite. The rumor that Burak Baba is also from Tokat and the dispute that he is Hoylu is exactly like this. The reports of Velâyet-Nâme contain contradictions that remain open to criticism in many ways, such as showing Hacı Bektâş, who was known to have passed away in 1271, as alive during the Orhan Gazi period.
See also: Velâyet-name-i Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî, Bektâşîlik, Abdal Musa, Balım Sultan, and Kaygusuz Abdal
Bâtınîs who were active in Anatolia during the period of Hacı Bektâş lived in Anatolia, such as Alevi, Bektâşî, Kızılbaş, Dazalak, Hurûfî, Greek abdals, Kalenderîs, Melâmiye, Haydariye, Mosque, Umbrella, Edhemiye, as well as all these diverse branches emerged one after another. Despite the disagreements of the roads over religious provisions, they were united on a common ground on the subject of "Batinism". The Batini cults they carried always included the suggestions of the Fatimid of Egypt and the Batini of Syria.
Ottoman Army and Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî
It was loved and revered by the Ottoman Sultans and the people. In the Ottoman Army, janissaries were trained according to the Bektashi rules. For this reason, the Janissaries were also called the children of Hacı Bektâş-ı Veli in history. The builder of the hearth was considered to be Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî. Bektashi grandfather and father always accompanied them while going on expeditions. Today, Bektashism brought janissaries to every corner of the Balkans. Those who followed the conversations of Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî and joined his sect were called “Bektaşî”.
- Velâyet-name-i Hacı Bektâş-ı Velî
- Makalat - (Arabic)
- Kitab al-fawaid
- Annotation of the Basmalah
- Şathiyy to
- Makâlât-ı Gaybiyye and Kelimât-ı Ayniyye