In this article, we will talk about the Higgs. The originator of the subject, Peter Ware Higgs (born May 29, 1929), is a British theoretical physicist, retired from Edinburgh University, and also a Nobel Prize winner in Physics for his work on subatomic particles.
Before coming to the work of Peter Ware Higgs, it is useful to examine the "Quantum Field Theory" Standard Model, which has been verified by numerous experiments over the last 30 years and is used to describe subatomic particles. (Three fundamental forces are examined in the Standard Model; Electromagnetic force, Weak nuclear interaction force (electro-weak force) and Strong nuclear interaction force.) The Standard Model defines Quantum Electrodynamics, in which electrons and photons are defined, and Quantum Chromodynamics, known as the theory of quarks and gluons. According to quantum color dynamics, there are 6 different types of quarks and these quarks interact in different ways. Quarks can be held together by the strong nuclear interaction, which is released as a boson and a gluon, which mediates the strong nuclear interaction. As a result of the work known as quantum color dynamics theory for the Murray Gell-Mann scientific group, the group of scientists received the award for their work, which resulted in the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1969. “Cromo” is known as “color” in Greek for quantum color dynamics. In other words, it comes from the way colors interact with each other. https://fizikhaber.com/atomun-rengi/ It is in our article on the color of the atom that I compiled with my professors on 03/07/2021.
At this stage, we can move on to our topic. on 13 June 2022 https://fizikhaber.com/buyuk-birlesik-alan-teorisi-hakkinda-bir-yaklasim/ I touched on the subject a little bit in my article. This article will be on the Higgs.
Higgs mechanics was proposed by many scientists, especially Peter Higgs, who in the 1960s suggested that the electro-weak theory could reveal the origin of the mass of fundamental particles and the details of the W and Z bosons. This proposal predicts the existence of a new particle, the Higgs boson. For Peter Ware Higgs, the work on the Higgs boson would be one of the greatest physics achievements for the scientist. On July 4, 2012, it was published at CERN that a boson like the Higgs boson was experimentally found, the remarkable side of the research was that they needed more work for the standard Higgs boson model. We know that a particle with zero spin and positive parity was discovered on March 14, 2013 in index searches. In CERN LHC experiments A discovered particle contains two main support notes of the Higgs boson: zero spin and the state of being a scalar particle. And it was the first scalar particle discovered in nature for the first time in the history of science. Again, as a result of the indexed search Physical Review Letters We know that an academic paper on the Higgs boson was published on May 20, 2014 .
Higgs mechanics is generally considered an important component of the standard model of particle physics. It is known that without Higgs mechanics, certain particles would be massless.
SO WHAT IS THIS HIGGS FIELD AND HIGGS BOSON?
According to the Big Bang Theory, it is thought that just after the Big Bang, there was a faster-than-light expansion, called cosmic inflation, in millions of section units of a second. Although this expansion was thought to have caused fluctuations in space, the resulting fluctuations were discovered for the first time beyond theory, after the waves reaching the Earth after the collision of two huge black holes were examined. During the formation of the Universe with the Big Bang, the Higgs Field is also present with the gravitational force in the first moments. The Higgs Field can interact with particles and give them mass. Although the scientists stated in the articles that we cannot discover the Higgs field directly, I think that the Higgs boson, which is the mediator between the particle and the field, can be discovered. In subatomic particles, the proton mass is approximately 1836 electron masses. So, there is a mechanism in the microcosm that gives mass to these subparticles. This is the mechanism that enables subatomic particles to gain mass. It is the Higgs field and the matter gains mass when this field is scalar. (I wrote in the previous section; On March 14, 2013, a particle with zero spin and positive parity was discovered. This particle met the two main criteria for the Higgs boson and was the first scalar particle discovered in nature).
The fact that the Higgs Field is Scalar means that the field existing in the negative universe is FULL OF VIRTUAL PARTICLES. At this point, it is useful to say the following; It is thought that the number values of virtual particles are infinite and they do not tend to increase or decrease in the sum of these particles during hypercharge exchange in the negative universe. The only known parameter that ensures this is due to zero spin. The fundamental particle, the electron, acquires a hypercharge with the Higgs field and interacts with the Weak Nuclear Interaction Force. According to the law of conservation of energy, the hypercharge sum is also conserved. As a result of the hypercharge interaction of the electron and Higgs field, the up and down spin value becomes 1 – 1 = 0, we find the zero spin according to the information obtained.
At this stage, we know from previous data; It is known that quarks can combine to produce Higgs and produce quarks by the Higgs boson with a reversible mechanism. Again, according to the data obtained; Baryons and quarks, which are subatomic particles They appear as particles that interact strongly with the Higgs Field. in standard model the heaviest bottom particle is the top arid and was discovered in 1995 at the Fermi Laboratory. The Higgs particle can produce a top quark and a bottom quark (also called anti top quark), and these two collide to form the Higgs particle. The formation mechanism is very fast and femtosecond (1 femtosecond = 10)-18 s), because it appears and disappears in a very short time, it is appropriate to call itself the "Ghost Particle", scientists called it the God Particle. In quantum physics, all particles float in the energy field associated with them, if we think of it as a gigantic ocean. It is very possible to say that the Higgs Boson is floating in the Higgs Ocean.
Yes, I know it was not very simple and clear. Now let's make an Allegory and everyone thinks of an artist they like very much according to their age range. You have 5 seconds. For example … Now we are listening to a lecture in the classroom, one of these artists comes in. Crying for joy in the classroom, the lesson is over. The whole class surrounds that beloved artist. That beloved artist, in order to get rid of this love ball, transfers all his energy to his lovers who hug him as positive energy, and his energy ends and disappears in a moment. Energy transfer In Physics, giving mass to particles and extinction is attributed to the term Ghost Particle, which was attributed to him because the Higgs Particle could not be discovered.
One of the Physics questions that students faced recently was about the Higgs Boson. A good and interesting question, of course. According to the question, which particle interacts with the Higgs boson and gains mass? Answer: Electron and Top Quark. I was expecting this question as a Basic Sciences question in a higher exam.
Dear reader, stay with love.
Dr. Firat AKBALIK