Second Quantum Revolution – 1

Wave and Particle Duality
Wave and Particle Duality

Regarding Quantum Mechanics, Prof. from ITU Physics Engineering. With the advice of our teacher Emre Onur Kahya, we have compiled a very simple writing of our teacher Sabine Hossenfelder, who is now a close follower of ours. We will announce it to you with more than one article. Our topic is the Second Quantum Revolution. Let's take a look at the EPR paradox approach from a different angle of our very popular teacher.

Quantum mechanics is more than a hundred years old. This sounds like the work of dusty textbooks, but research on quantum mechanics is more active than it was a century ago. This is because many fundamental facts about quantum mechanics were not resolved experimentally until the 1980s. But then, by 2000, experimental progress had completely changed the field. Today it is developing faster than ever before.

How did this happen, why does it matter, and what is quantum teleportation?

Albert Einstein was famously skeptical of quantum mechanics. He thought that quantum mechanics could not be a complete description of nature and argued that something was missing in nature.

You see, in quantum mechanics we cannot predict the outcome of a measurement. We can only speculate *probability to get a particular outcome. Without quantum mechanics, I would say if I fire my particle ball, the particles will land right there. With quantum mechanics I'd say they'll only land there 50% of the time, but the chances of them being everywhere are small.

Einstein didn't like it at all. He actually thought that the outcome of a measurement was determined, only by "hidden variables" that we don't have in quantum mechanics. If it were, the result would appear random as we don't have enough information to predict.

EPR Paradox

To make this point, in 1935 Einstein, along with Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen, wrote a famous article in what is now called the EPR newspaper. In this article, they argued that quantum mechanics is incomplete, that nature cannot work like that. They were the first to realize how important "entangled" particles are to understanding quantum mechanics. This will become very important and lead to bizarre technologies like quantum teleportation, which I'll tell you about in a moment.

Entangled particles share some properties, but you just know that both particles know this property together. Not determined for individual particles. For example, even if you don't know which particle has which spin, you may know that the spins of two particles must equal zero. But if you measure one of the particles, quantum mechanics says the spin of the other particle is suddenly determined. No matter how far away. This is what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," and what he was trying to discuss with Podolsky and Rosen could probably not be true.


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