Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 04
Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 04

In this article, we talk about Max Planck, Planck's Constant, De Broglie Wavelength, Electromagnetic Spectrum Region and Black Body Radiation. Max Planck is a German scientist and one of the leading figures of the founders of Quantum Theory. Many scientists go by the name for Quantum Mechanics. In this article, we will talk about Uncle Max Planck.

Uncle Max Planck finds the 'Planck Constant' and 'Planck radiation law', known by his name, and puts it at the disposal of the scientific world. With the quantum theory he revealed, he opened a new page in the laws of physics, which made revolutionary discoveries in basic sciences. Uncle Max Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

So what did he do to make these revolutionary works come to light? Uncle Planck first discovers the Planck constant (h), which is the key to the transition to quantum mechanics.

Planck Constant value h= 6.62607015×10−34 It is J⋅s.

When Planck's constant was first discovered, the energy of a Photon (E) and the frequency of the electromagnetic wave (ν) was known as the resulting mathematical equation. It's still known that way in High School level 12th and Undergraduate Year 3, anyway.

This relationship between energy and frequency is called the Planck formula: ν frequency, λ wavelength and c when the speed of light is between them  λν = c has a relationship.

The Planck formula can also be expressed as

λ=h/P

Burada λ represents the wavelength, h the Planck constant, P the linear momentum. By additional expression λ is known as the De Broglie Wavelength.

I would like to make a note of history here regarding Planck's constant. Many of you will probably hear it for the first time. Meaning of Planck's Constant.

IT IS THE SMALLEST RANGE THAT AN OBJECT CAN BE SHORTENED. The object CANNOT be shortened after that small gap.

In the 4th grade of primary school, our teacher asked to bring a small tube, lighter and a wire tongs. I brought Emrullah Gümüş tube, Adnan Budak wire tongs, one of the two calender people I still share friendships with, and because my father was a lighter refill and repairer, I brought a lighter. We lit the small tube with a lighter to ignite the gas flow, the teacher took the previous candles in his cabinet and left them on the wire tongs, and the wire tongs were placed in a horizontal plane near the tube, with the candles on it, waiting at intervals. Do you remember? The nearest candle began to melt first.

So what did Uncle Max Planck do?

At this point What is Electromagnetic Spectrum?

Electromagnetic waves propagate with the speed of light, and each wave from radio waves to gamma rays is called electromagnetic wave, when these waves are examined together, the electromagnetic spectrum is revealed.

Electromagnetic Spectrum
Electromagnetic Spectrum

Blackbody Radiation Let's welcome the concept.

Blackbody Radiation
Blackbody Radiation

Examine the maximum wavelength of the radiation emitted by an object with a temperature of 3500 K, indicated by Black in the graph depicted above. This wavelength corresponds to a wavelength longer than the wavelength at which the radiation emitted by the object, which is 4000 K, is at its maximum, right? As the temperature increases, the peak shifts to the left, Yani as the temperature increases You will see that the wavelength of the most radiation is shortened.. This is really important! In other words, with the increase in temperature, the energy of the radiation also increases. Beyond that, there is another remarkable new information, that as the temperature increases, the radiation in all regions increases.

Remember the tube, candle and lighter experiment, Heat is energy transferred, there is an energy transferred on the wire tongs and wire tongs before red begins to appear. In the spectrum region, our eyes perceive the visible region, where the lowest energy radiation corresponds to the red color. As the wire tongs continue to be heated, would you say that the glow of the object will become more reddish? BINGO doesn't, the radiation in the higher-energy blue region is much greater than that in the red region. Therefore, the object that already appears red A blue color is also added. If all colors are mixed, the resulting color will be white. If you heat the tongs a little more and increase the glow in the blue region, you will make it appear blue because blue is added to the white.

Blackbody Radiation of Heated Object
Blackbody Radiation of Heated Object

In the photo we see Blackbody Radiation on a heated nail. The hottest part of the nail appears white due to its high temperature, while the colder parts of the nail appear yellow and then red as they go down. The phenomenon we perceive is a good example of direct blackbody radiation.

Briefly, Blackbody Radiation

  • Every object radiates due to its temperature.
  • Radiation has a maximum point.
  • As the temperature of the object increases, the maximum peak shifts towards the higher energy side (Wien shear law).
  • As the temperature of the object increases, its radiation in each region increases.
  • The heated object appears in red, then yellow, then white, then bluish tones.
  • Heated Nail, Wire Tongs redden, then turn yellow, become Incandescent.

Has anyone seen a green star? Didn't you see it? Blackbody Radiation does not allow this.

stay with love,

Dr. Firat AKBALIK
Physics teacher

About the Author:

Fırat Akbalık graduated from the Physics Department of Dicle University in 1998. He started his teaching profession, which he called Heart Job. Between 2005-2007, he received his Master's degree on Upper Space Reaction Dynamics at Fırat University, Institute of Science and Technology. He was accepted to the PhD program by the Institute in 2008, and in 2011, he received the title of Doctor of Science at the end of 2015 by conducting experimental studies on Pharmaceutical Food Safety at the Institute of Science and Technology of Dicle University. The author is still working as a Physics Teacher in Ankara Akyurt District National Education Directorate.

 

 

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2 Comments

  1. On my own behalf, I would like to thank Fırat Akbalık for sharing his vast knowledge with us in a conversational mood. The esteemed scientist who has devoted himself to science will be a light for all students who will progress on this path. Good luck with your effort 👏🏻👏🏻

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