Gravitational Waves and Dark Matter

Gravitational Waves and Dark Matter
Gravitational Waves and Dark Matter
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Dark matter is thought to make up roughly 85 percent of all matter in the universe. Dark matter has never been directly observed. It still remains one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of modern physics. Scientists had proven gravitational waves with extremely sensitive detectors. This work done in our previous articles we shared with you. In this article, we will talk about the relationship on "Gravity Waves and Dark Matter".

Researchers believe that gravitational technology finally has real potential to discover dark, exotic matter, or even find out why it's made. A team led by scientists from Cardiff University's Gravity Research Institute shared their work in the Journal of Nature. Their goal is to search for a new type of dark matter for the first time, using instruments known as laser interferometers.

What is Dark Matter? Let's Get to Know Dark Matter.

Dark matter is a hypothetical form of matter thought to make up about 85% of the matter in the universe. Its existence is implied in various astrophysical observations, including gravitational effects, which cannot be explained by accepted theories of gravity unless there is more matter than seen. For this reason, most experts think that dark matter is abundant in the universe and has a strong influence on its structure and evolution. Dark matter is called dark because it does not interact with the electromagnetic field, meaning it does not absorb, reflect or emit electromagnetic radiation and is therefore difficult to detect.

If we go back to our article;

Until recently, it was widely believed that dark matter consists of heavy elementary particles. These have not been discovered despite numerous efforts, and scientists are now turning to alternative theories to explain dark matter.

One recent theory says that dark matter is actually something called a scalar field that acts like invisible waves bouncing around galaxies, including our own Milky Way.

Professor at Cardiff University “Although our instruments were originally designed to detect gravitational waves, we realized that these equipment could also be used to hunt for new types of dark matter,” Grote said.

In a laser interferometer, two beams of light are reflected between the mirrors before the beams meet on the detector.

From this result, scientists can measure with great accuracy how mismatched the light beams are with each other. These measurements are indicative of any difficulties faced by the light beams.

The Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) consists of two interferometers located in the USA. It has two arms, each 4 km long, arranged in an “L” shape. They have been used to detect gravitational waves for the first time in 2015 and many times since.

What is Interferometry?

Interferometry is a technique that uses the interference of superimposed waves to extract information. Interferometry typically uses electromagnetic waves. It is an important research technique in the fields of astronomy, fiber optics, engineering metrology, optical metrology, oceanography, seismology, spectroscopy (and its applications in chemistry), quantum mechanics, nuclear and particle physics, plasma physics.

It is also used in the fields of remote sensing, biomolecular interactions, surface profiling, microfluidics, mechanical stress/strain measurement, velocity measurement, optometry and hologram making.

The UK/German GEO 2009 detector in Germany, of which Grote was team leader from 2017 to 600, is another highly sensitive interferometer. This detector has been used to detect gravitational waves and to develop the necessary technologies.

At the same time, the GE0600 detector was used for the first time in this study, especially to search for dark matter.

"The scalar field dark matter waves will pass through the Earth and our instruments, but in doing so, cause objects such as mirrors to vibrate very slightly," said lead researcher Sander Vermeulen of Cardiff University.

“The vibrations of the mirrors distort the light beams in devices such as the GEO600 or LIGO detectors in a certain way that is characteristic of dark matter. As a result of this degradation process, it will be possible to determine what the properties of dark matter are.”

While dark matter has never been directly detected, scientists suspect it exists due to the gravitational effect on objects in the universe.

For example, large amounts of unseen matter may explain why galaxies spin this way and how they formed in the first place.

The team states that despite the failure of any detection in this new study, they remain hopeful for the future.

They say they've taken important first steps in introducing this technology into dark matter research and are making progress in narrowing down certain parameters for future studies. In other words, we can say that it is a big step for humanity.

“I was surprised at how sensitive an instrument originally made for a completely different purpose could be to hunt for dark matter,” Prof. Grote continued.

"We have firmly rejected some theories that say dark matter has certain properties," Vermeulen said. So we now have a better idea of ​​what to look for in future searches,” he adds.

"We believe these new techniques have the potential to explore dark matter at some point in the future."

source: physorg

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